|Publication number||US2489428 A|
|Publication date||29 Nov 1949|
|Filing date||21 Feb 1944|
|Priority date||21 Feb 1944|
|Publication number||US 2489428 A, US 2489428A, US-A-2489428, US2489428 A, US2489428A|
|Inventors||Mariner Norman E|
|Original Assignee||United Shoe Machinery Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (25), Referenced by (15), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
5 Sheets-Sheet l his Atto/ne [ni/enfa NormahEMar-nef' Nov. 29, 1949 N. E. MARINER MAGAZINE FOR MACHINE GUNS Filed Feb. 21, 1944 Nov. 29, 1949 N. E. MARINER 2,489,428
MAGAZINE FOR MACHINE GUNS Filed Feb. 2l, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Nov. 29, 1949 N. E. MARINER 2,489,428
MAGAZINE Foa MACHINE @uns Filed Feb. 21, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet I5 j? Eg. 5f
59 n l az Nov. 29, 1949. N. EQ MARINER MAGAZINE FOR MACHINE GUNS 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Feb. 2l, 1944 Nov. 29, 1949 N. E. MARINER MAGAZINE -Fon MAGHINE Guns 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Feb. 21, 1944 nI/enor NormanEMaf-iner' Patented Nov. 29, 1949 unirsi)V srnras Para "T fili FFICE MAGAZINE FOR MACHINE GUNS' Norman E. Marinen Beverly, Maes., assigner to United Shoe Machinery ("orp'elration,Y Flemington, VN. Jl, a corporation of. New .Fersey Application Felruary 21, 12944, Serial No. 523,263
(Cl. SSI-33) HiGfaims. 1-
Tnis" invention relates to means by which ammunition may be supplied' to machine-guns, being particularly concerned' with a. magazine which maybe mounted'on the gun to be fed:
Arr object of the invention'. is to present to' a; gun a relatively" large number of cartridges" for each` loading of the magazine, and to cause their advance to' the breech meclnmism by simple and compact means, which will facilitate the intro'- duction ofT the cartridgesinto' the magazine and which will deliver" them therefrom' accurately and with little resistance to their movement through theinagazine and to the operation of the breech mechanism. This object I attain ly assembli'nlg the cartridges in a casinguponk a series of supports, arrangedone above another and moving the series or cartridges over successive supports toward or from` a deliveryeopening in the' casing; the direction of: movement. depending upon whether the magazine is feeding'a gun ory is4 beingv suppliedl With cartridges. Thus', manyf cartridges may be arranged in an orderly manner ina: quite limited space. Along the` supports or shelves, thev cartridges are advanced by means" preferably consisting of an' endless' conveyor, whichv is' shown asy furnished" by' chains guided alternately back and forth along the `shelves and across a delivery-opening a1: the bottom' or' the cas-ing. Through the advancing means'a normal forceis exerted upon the series' of cartridges ef#- fe'ctive during the greater'portion of; each; period' oi their advance, thusmaintaining'their'positibnsl in the' magazine and; in part, providing'foritheir delivery. The constant or normalforce is in"- creased at such predetermined perio'ds asismost' effective during thel delivery of each cartridge to the gun. This added' force may be' generated under thefpower of the gun, as'by a cam' movable with the breech-block. The actuating' means for' the conveyor is herein disclosed as a driving member engagingy the conveyor;` and a normal'ly effective or loaded spring operating' gearing from which the power of the spring' is communicated', as= throughratchet mechanism, to the driving member. My invention' also provides stop means cohoperating' with the conveyor for preventiltig itsy loading movement' if it fails to receivecorr--V rectl'yV spaced cartridges; means for ensuring the correct introduction of the cartridges into" the mouthpiece for registration with locating. means' forming a portion of the conveyor; a novel arrangement-1 of dummy-cartridges by which thel interlock mechanism of the gun isftrpped and' a'V convenient construction of' magazineecasing;
Fig: 1 shows a particular embodiment of my iimnoveir magazine in end elevation, attached to the breech-casing of a gun and with parts lorol'en away;
Fig; 2 is a transverse section, taken just in front of the magazine and looking toward the rear, said magazine being in elevation with parts broken away,
Figi, 3; an enlarged broken horizontal section through the magazine; taken above* the dummycartrid'ges in the upper tieroi' the magazine;
Flg'; 4, a partial" section oh the line IV-IV of Fig. 1, sli-owing the rear portion of the magazinecasihg' Fig'. 5, a separated perspective ofthe elements carried bythe driving' shaft`v outside` the casing? Fig'. 6, a. horizontal' section through the magazine-throat on the line vI-VI' of Fig. 2;
Fig: 7", a broken perspective view of the throat;
Figs. 8` an'd'g, details sectional' elevation illustrailing the acti-on o'fV the cani-actuated feeding mechanism upon cartridges during recoil and counter-recon, respectively;
Fig. 1'0', an enlarged vertical sectional detail' ci the clutch mechanism hy which the feedsh'aft may' be. turn'ed either manually or under.' the innence of gun-discharge; and
Fig. 11, an enlarged separated perspective of" portions of said mechanism.
A generally cuboidal' primary casingV A is of a Width somewhat greater than' the length of the cartridges C, which itl` is shown as containing, and of a length and' height such that the desired number oi' cartridges, with their advancing means,f may be disposed in successive vertical tiers. The elements which furnish the casing or clo'sur'e are. supported upon a mouthpiece M2 to be later more particularly descrioed, which. is.
adapted to be mounted' upon the breech-casing off a gun G' and through which the cartridges are received and delivered.- O'f' the casingv elements, horizontally elongated'plate's l S', I'foi'm the side- Walls, these lieingl attached? by screws i2 to cpposite ends of the mouthpiece. The plates are stayed and' maintained" in parallelism by a series of spacers, which may consist oftubes |15', with,
th'ei'rends' ahutting theinner faces of' the plates,Y
clamped44 in place by screws I`S extending through. treplatesand threaded' into the tubes. To com.-
plete' the casing byits t'op,.end' and bottom walls..
ag cover-sliip is of sheetmetal is bent to form over" the corner-spacers and attached at its ad`- jacent ends to the mouthpiece by screwsV 20'. Handles 221 by which the casing may be manipulated', are fastened t`o` i't by the screws I6' of the spacers in such locations as are most convenient. Secured to the opposite side-plates I0, as by a welding, are vertical series of parallel horizontal projections 24 and 26, with the ends of each spaced from the ends of the casing and by which shelves 26 are wider than the shelves 24 and are.
thickened at their inner edges 28, where rest the bullets of the cartridges, which are of less diameter than the cases. Thus, the longitudinal axes of the cartridges are kept at right angles to the side-walls I8, I of the casing transversely of the travel of the conveyor. The lowest pair 30, 32 of the opposite shelves are shorter than their companions, they terminating at the mouthpiece M. The two pairs of projections 34, 34, at the top of the casing and next above the shelves 30 and 32, act only to retain the cartridges below them against upward displacement, rather than as supports. Their special utility is in connection with the loading of the magazine, when it may be inverted. At each extremity of the casing, the ends of the shelves are joined successively to the ones below them by curved cartridge-retaining walls 38, while between one end of the upper projections 34 and the shelves 24 and 28 immediately below them are Walls 40 closing the upper channel to the passage of cartridges.
To advance the cartridges from the channels furnished by the casing-projections for successive delivery through the mouthpiece M to a gun G, a conveyor is provided. At each side of the casing A at alternate ends of the intermediate shelves and at both ends of the lower projections 34, guide-rolls 42 are rotatable about studs 44 set in the casing-plates I0. These rolls are so located that they direct the conveyor which they guide alternately in opposite directions along the shelves 24, 26 and 30, 32. Beyond both the lower and upper projections 34 at one end of the casing, are similarly mounted rolls 46, the upper rolls lying in a vertical space between the shelves 24, 26 and the casing-wall. These guide the conveyor into co-operation with driving mechanism D, hereinafter described, and finally to the top of the casing above the upper shelves 24 and 28. Another pair of rolls, designated as 48, turn upon blocks 58, and may be clamped, by screws 52 extending through the sides of the casing, in different positions inclined downwardly and outwardly to serve as tightening means. Over the rolls, along a path which appears in Fig. 2 of the drawings, operate two endless sprocket-chains 54 and 56 furnishing the cartridge-conveyor. From the chain 54 at appropriate intervals, the pins 58 joining the links are extended inwardly (Fig. 3), and have rotatable upon their inner extremities anged rolls 60 of such diameter and so spaced as to enter the grooves f in the cartridge-cases. The connecting pins 58 of the opposite chain 56 carry cylindrical tubular extensions 62 with reduced ends inclined oppositely to the tapering ends of` the bullets b of the cartridges. These extensions are so related to the opposite rolls 60, that they act with them to maintain the longitudinal axes of the cartridges equally spaced, parallel to each other, and at right angles to the chains. The engagement of the roll-flanges with the casegrooves positions the cartridges definitely, longitudinally of their axes. The horizontal runs of 4 both chains are guided and held against sagging by channel-strips 8l, with their webs attached to the side-walls lil and their flanges extending inwardly. Projections 59 from the channel-flanges lie between the opposite links of the chains to hold these against lateral movement. When the cartridges are carried from one level to another, etained against outward displacement by the curved walls 38, they loose the support of the shelves 24 and 26. To prevent their inward displacement at these points from their parallel relation, the narrowed porti-on 63 of each shelf 24, where it extends along the guide-roll 42, is thickened (Figs. 2 land 3) to give a rounded end with which the cartridges may contact as they are transferred. This thickened portion reaches far enough inwardly to reinforce the weaker narrow end.
The chains 54 and 56 are advanced to feed the cartridges in the magazine through the mouthpiece M into the gun G by the motor or driving mechanism D. The gun, as represented, is of the well known Oerlikon type, of which no description is necessary. The driving mechanism is carried by a secondary casing a attached to the front plate I8 of the primary casing A, just at one side of the mouthpiece. Into the casing a extends a driving shaft 64, journaled at opposite sides of the primary casing. To the shaft, within the casing A, are xed sprocket-wheels 65, 85, one of which meshes with each of the chains be` tween two of the rolls 46, beyond the lower casing-projections 34. These rolls are so situated that the chains are held in engagement with arcs of the peripheries of the sprocket-wheels of considerable length. Guided in a cylindrical upward extension of the casing a is a tube 86, upon the side of which are rack-teeth 6'! meshing with a gear 68 within the casing a and rotatable about the shaft G4. The rack extends below the casings ajand A, and vhas rotatable upon its lower extremity a roll '10. This roll is forced down by an expansion-spring 'H into the path of a cam-projection 'I2 upon one of the breech-bars g, movable with the breech-block g of the gun. The lower end of the spring rests upon the closed bottom of the tube 68, while the upper end abuts against a screw 'I6 threaded through a plug 'i8 closing the top of the casing-extension. By altering the position of the screw, there may be attained a varying normal load applied by the spring to the rack. This phrase normal load, as employed throughout the specification, is to be understood to mean that predetermined or initial load placed upon the spring 'il through its compression, produced by the position of the screw i6, unmodied by the action of other elements of the mechanism. Through predetermined limited periods, action of other elements of the mechanism augmentsthe normal load by increasing the totall side of the gear 68 is a tubular hub or extension 80 (Fig. 5), through which are four equally spaced radial passages, each containing a plunger-pawl 82 backed by an expansion-spring 84 abutting against the circular band 86 surrounde asas-nes ring tithe agen-extension. f-Each pawl is divided ratiitsfouterfend, and between these. spacedpro- .81 the bandfdies. .This ,retains ,said :band ingplace, .andzalso `:holds the; :pavv1sl against vrotatienaboutrtheirfaxes. Rotatalible'about theshaft 64 within the extension -'80,.=is afsleeve :'88 having -fperipheral .ratchet-teeth f90 vwhich the pawls 82 nengage. TheserapaWls iand.fratchetteeth are `so earranged, that-When the-.rack 61 :is raised by the '-:carn :?|,2.land the.1gear68 isturned thereby, the `tsprin'g is ;.compressed iandgfiully loaded, ,but rthepawls-imove.idlyfover.theyratchet-teeth so the nsleeve imemains-atfre'st When the cam lrelgileases y.theraclg .the pawls become eiective to rotate-1the sleeve under 'tithe influence .of .theVV pffsprfing.V During the upward movement ofV `the track,frotationzoffthesleevenas the pawls travel .rover-itfislpreveritedibyzla spring-'pressed detent 92, :movable :ini the .casinga and engaging. thev ratchet-teeth 90"1o11tsidelthee gear-extension v.80.
` yItis 5desired either 'to maketthe spring 'mecha- :enismheiective to -turnthef'shaftl thereby adwancing theconveyor-chai-ns and 56 to feed to lthe gun thevcartridgeszwhich they engage, orto 4i'dismannect-saidspring imechanism, so the travel mi itheschakins .may'lbe reversed manually during rheloadinglof-thermagazine For this purpose fthereduced` out'er-feridf-fthe sleeve 88 has pairs '.fopposite-Espressione 84, '94,which mayrefcive-'pairs ldi lprojectionsg, 96 Iupon the inner "extrem-ity lotra =collar98, surrounding the shaft 64 I.and'havingfanopening |001 fitting about an ansgularfs'houlder 4|102-uponlsaidz shaft outside the "sleeve An eeXpansion-spring' 04, 'interposed be- 41-outer endof the shaft,`tends to seat `the projectionsin the depressions and rthe opening about fthe Shoulder. @The collar a lknurled flange, wihichfmayibe graspedtofshiftisaid collar outnvardly 1beyond the -end -o'f the shoulder, with the projections" 96 withdrawn 'from the depressions ltfand'f'thenfturned about-itsfaxis until the co1- lar-openinglisouto'f `registration With the shoulder v4"|02. v"The spring f |04fnowlholds the collar gagainst the veridy o'f the fsholder disengaged from the sleeve. `With fthe collar 'released from the sslfmld'erand' the proj ectionsV 96`he1'dby the spring |04 in the depressions'lill,fthe force' which the rspring 'l #applies to th-e rack 61wil1"be communi- Acated through Athe gear YS68, its extensionv8il,"the '-pawls 82, the ratchet-'teeth'l' and 'their sleeve'88 @with its 'depressionsllnthe collari98 and its-projections j96, to the'fshoulder 1102 of the shaft'64, -arid thus tothe sprocket-Wheelsf and the chains rdaandf'. This is asaappears'finFig. l, the drivng mechanism D-beingprepared'ior'the delivery io'f the cartridges from -the magazine. `Wth the iellar-opening |00 Withdrawn from the shaft- .shoulder and its projections from `the sleeve-idepressions, and *turned until the opening and 1 shoulder are 4out ofr registration, `as* shown in"Y Fig. $1.1, thefshaft'is freed 'from theeffect of the spring EN and "theintermediate connections. A handecrankel mayfbeappliedto'the squared end |08 soft-sleeve lylandcthe'chainscaused to'travel f.
.freelyn a'directionfopposite'etorthatproduced by he-spring. Thus the cartridgeszrare caused to advance intothe Y.magazine from without for its loadingas they advance'oppositely in` withdrawaln'iromthe magazinewunderfthe inilu-ence of the spring-1| in. the loading oftheggun. As applied atoithe .travel in `either direction, the `word Adtance` rhas the meaning, given ,-byWebsters ANew International Dictionar-y-fftoifmake lto go oni vBecause of .the .vlforce :applied uby the :spring .througlrtheegear 68 and sleeve i88`-to the collar, it rmaypbexdi'icult :to withdraw thefcollar-projec- A.and the side `of theicasing'u,I4 about the sleevefia ,disk l0 of considerable.diameter.
iThe engag- `lng. surfaces of the disk Jandcasing .are plane, but. at the other side the .dishhas yCairn-'projecrtions H2, which may lie withinsiniilarly formed fdepressionsin the .collar when the collar-projec- `tions engage vthesleeve-depressions, or maycbe turned `against `co-op'erating.projections I4 upon 'vt-he collar.
Thecamming elect exerted through the large disk is sulcient to `overcome the-re- `VVsistance to withdrawal V.of '.the collar-projections from the sleeve-depressions without undue effort.
:After this, a completioniof `the movement fffthe collar may easily be eiected.
.The mouthpiece .at` the center of the casing A, `so the weight at opposite `sides of the `lgunfis in substantial balance, and `rests at its :opposite 'sides upon the top of the breech-casing Vof -said gun. It has an upper cartridge-receiving passage IIS within the ycasing and .at which the lower :magazine-shelves 30 and 32 terminate, and ade- `'livery-passage l liS into `which the receiving pas` sage merges and `.which extends: downwardly/for entrance into the breech-casing close to the path ofthe breech-block g. The-stated relation 'zdf the cartridge-receiving and -delivering passages applies to the feed of the gun. For loading the magazine, this relation is reversed. The passages are of a length transversely of the magazinean'd .of a width su'bient to allow the travel ofthe cartridges through them. The upper wall ofthe passage ||6 is cut away at 'each side to receive Vthe chains 54 and 5S. From the opposite sides ofthe junctures of the two passages, extend horizontal portions |20, |20 to which the cover-strip i8 oi the casing A is attached. Upon eachside -of the low-er delivery-opening of the mouthpiece ,from the passage H8 isa lip or flange |22, -ex- .tending from points near the rear of the magal :zine,'part waytoward'the `barrel-"end-ancl bei-ng inclined downwardly and forwardly. These lips support the terminal-cartridge delivered bythe chains and pressed against them by the driving mechanism D, while through the forward space Ibeyond the lips the terminal-'cartridge is carried lby the breech-bolt for introduction into the gunzbarrel. In the loading of the magazine, the cartridges are introduced successively through the space, thrust back upon the lips and then up through the passages I'IB-and -H'forengagement `with Vthe projections and62-of the chains. 'It isA necessary that thegroove f at the primer-*end ofeach cartridgeshall be in position, as it leaves the passage H6, to receive the flanges of each of the `advancing chain-rolls 60. This is ensured by forming upon opposite sides of the passage projecting ribs |24, |24 (Figs. 6 and 7), of such dimensions as to enter `the grooves in the cartridge-cases and in registration with the grooveengaging anges of the rolls. Further, to compel the forcing of'the cartridgeback'upon the lips until 4its groove `is alined with the ribs |24, the opposite sides of the ypassage llt` have a second pair 4of ribs |26, |26. These are of a size and so placed that the only part of the cartridge which can pass betweenthemiis1the=bullet`=bjfbe yond the rotating band. Only if the cartridges properly related'to the ribs |26, `and thereoreto the ribs |26,` can it'be forced .up intolthe passage v'f5 H6 for `correctengagementrbytthe chains and travel with them through the magazine. mouthpiece also has means for separably securing the magazine to the gun. From the forward -extremity of each side of the mouthpiece, a pin the direct feeding action of the chains.
|30 projects to be received beneath a hook h upon the top of the breech-casing. At the rear, the mouthpiece is provided with a depression |32 for engagement by the usual latch-lever l pivoted upon the breech-casing. With the latch-lever is j associated the usual lever l and other elements of the interlock mechanism of the Oerlikon gun, which maintains it charged after the last cartridge in the magazine has been red. The counter-recoil-spring is thus held in its compressed relation, while the magazine is being removed from the gun to receive its supply of cartridges.
AUpon release of the cartridges C by the projections on the conveyor-chains 54 and 56 and their descent into the mouthpiece, the tapering form of their cases c causes them to assume positions inclined downwardly at their bullet-ends. To compensate for this, and to maintain the force of the conveyor upon the entire series of cartridges, thus holding the terminal-cartridge firmly upon the lips |22 of the magazine, the surfaces of the .mouthpiece to which the plates l0, I6 of the casing A are attached are inclined upwardly and forwardly. This correspondingly inclines the entire casing, so that as the cartridges are released by the chain-projections to enter the mouthpiece their inclination is substantially that of those in said mouthpiece. Continuity of pressure upon the bullet-ends of the cartridges is thereby assured.
The magazine-chains 54 and 56 carry permanently such a number of dead or dummy-cartridges C' and C (Fig. 3), that the feeding force of the spring 1| will be effectively applied to the last live cartridge to be delivered from the magazine to the gun, as said live cartridge passes through the mouthpiece-passages |6, I8 beyond These dummies have portions |46 and |42 for correct vengagement with the chain-rolls 66 and projeccenters of the dummies come into engagement with each other, as they enter the mouthpiece and lose the positioning effect of the chain-projections, this ensuring their parallelism and proper feeding eli-ect. The leading dummy C' has means for actuating the interlock-lever Z'. This consists of a plunger |41 movable within a longitudinal bore and urged outwardly by an expansionspring |46 interposed between the bottom of the bore and the plunger. Displacement of the plunger from the bore by the spring is prevented by a pin |56 passing through the wall of the dummy into a longitudinal slot in its plunger. Movement of the end of the plunger outside the bore is normally limited by engagement of its inclined end |52, rst with the chain 54 and then with the wall of the mouthpiece. When the delivery of the last live cartridge C is completed, the plunger-end has passed beyond the retaining wall of the mouthpiece. Here the end |52 strikes the interlock-lever Z and trips it, to keep the gun charged or cocked. A pin |54 projecting from one of the links |44 lies in a depression in the adjacent end of the dummy C to maintain the surface at |52 in the correct angular relation about the longitudinal axis of the plunger for its action upon the interlock-lever. When this leading dummy is in interlock-controlling position at the exit of the mouthpiece,
.conveyor-chains 54 and 56 shall be occupied,
when loaded, by the successive introduction oi cartridges through the mouthpiece M. To ensure this, a stop device associated with one of the chains prevents inward movement of the cartridges through the action of the crank |06, if a space between the projections has been left vacant. From one of the plates ||l just inside the opening of the mouthpiece-passage ||6 and between the lowest shelf 24 and the projection 34 beneath it, a stud extends. This stud has inside the path of the chain 54 a shoulder |62, and to its inner extremity is fixed a collar |64. Arranged to turn upon the stud, just within the shoulder and above the primer-ends of the cartridge-cases acted upon by the chains, is a stop shown as in the form of a plate |66, the under edge |68 of which curves upwardly from the stud above the opening of the mouthpiece-passage I6 to meet the straight upper edge |16 at a point |12. A torsion-spring |14, joined at its ends to the plate |66 and the collar |64, exerts a force urging said plate toward the cartridge-cases pass,- ing beneath it. As long as the cartridges are so introduced through the mouthpiece that every space, between the cartridge-engaging projections from the chains moving from right to left in Fig. 2, receives one, the curved edge |68 will ride upon the cartridge-cases, and the point |12 will be held above them. If, however, a space between the projections is unoccupied, the spring will compel the stop-plate to enter said space. Then its point will lie in the path of the next approaching cartridge, arresting the receiving movement of the chains until they have been turned back by the crank and the vacant space y supplied. In the opposite or feeding movement of the chains, the stop-plate floats upon the cartridges, it being freely lifted by their engagement with the curved edge |68.
When the magazine is empty, the linked dummy-unit will be within the passages of the mouthpiece M. The leading dummy C" is at the mouth of the passage I8, in its interlock-tripping position, and the last dummy C at the opposite end of the unit is still between the chain-projections at the opening of the passage I6. In preparation for loading the magazine, the projections of the collar 98 at the driving mechanism D are withdrawn from the depressions of the sleeve 88, if necessary with the aid of the cam-disk H0, and this disengagement maintained by rotating the collar until it rests against the squared shoul' der |62 of the driving shaft 64. The crank |66 is applied to the end |08 on the shaft and turned to cause the lower runs of the chains 54 and 56 to travel from right to left (Fig. 2) over the shelves 3D and 32. As this occurs, the dummies will successively assume their places between the rolls 60 of the chain 54, and the projections 62 of the chain 56. They are followed by live cartridges C, pressedin a continuous series through the mouth; piece-passages between the chain-rolls and projections. The mouthpiece-ribs |24 enter the grooves f in the cartridges, registering these with the flanges of the chain-rolls 60, and the ribs |26 compel the co-operation with the grooves of the ribs |24. If there is failure to maintain the continuity of supply, the plate |66 engages the rs't cartridge following the vacant space, compelling the travel of the chain to be reversed and the cartridges correctly introduced into the mouthpiece. This continues until the magazine has received its full supply of, say, one hundred cartridges. This condition is made evident by the stopping of the travel of the chains because of the contact of the leading dummy C" with the walls 4D at the ends of the upper shelves 34 and 36. It is to be noted that the only manual force exerted directly upon the cartridges .in loading, is that .necessary to carry the short series through the mouthpiece into the receiving spaces of the chains. All other force .is applied with `little eiort through the ample leverage furnished by the crank. In this loading, since the cartridges are held positively in parallelism bythe engagement of the chain-projections, they cannot be displaced .from this relation to `cause clogging. With the magazine thus supplied, and the collar 98 turned to free it from the shoulder |02 of the shaft, the collar-projections enter the depressions in the sleeve 88. The crank is turned in the opposite direction to bring the terminal-cartridge against the mouthpiece-lips |22 and the rack 66 is raised manually so there is created a load applied by the spring 1| tothe conveyor-chains y5l! and 56 to hold the terminal-cartridge under relatively light pressure, ready for delivery. This pressure is exerted through the gearing '61, |58, and ratchet mechanism 82., 9|! and the clutch 94, 96. The crank is removed and the magazine is ready for application to the gun.
For the active use of the magazine, the spaced portions of the mouthpiece M are placed upon the top of the breech-casing `of a gun G with the :lower extremity of the passage t8 receiving the top of the breech-block y'. .It is there secured by its projections beneath the hooks A hand by the latch-lever i of the fgun. The action of the magazine upon the cartridges the discharge of the gun is illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9 of the drawings. AConsidering the recoil `of the breech-block, it will be seen in Fig. l, that initially the cam 12 in its forward position is separated by a substantial .space from the roll 1|) of the driving mechanism D. There is consequently placed by the chains 55. and B6 upon the series of cartridges in the magazine only the pressure produced by the normal load upon the spring 1|. This, which has `been suliicient to hold the l'eading cartridge 'C in place against the mouthpiecelips |l22 ready 'to receive the action of the breechblock, is now urging the cartridge against the top of said Ybreech-block, it causing relatively slight resistance to the movement of withdrawal of the empty cartridge-case from the barrel of 'the gun as the breech-block recoils. This is as represented in full Vlines in Fig. 8. At a point indicated by the primer-end of a cartridge the cam 12, in its full-line position in Fig. 8, has reached the roll 1i), and raised the rack 't6 to apply tothe spring 1| its full maxi-mum load. Immediately thereafter, the forward tapered upper surface of the breech-block comes into engagement with the cartridge'C, and the force of the loade'dspring is .utilized un'til the cam has reached the dashline position, this `lowering the cartridge through the space above the breech-block taper onto the lips |22 of the mouthpiece. As the breech-block approaches the dash-line position, the empty cartridge-case, now indicated atv". 1S bi'ng acted 10 upon by the ejecting mechanism of the gun, and the pressure upon it of the next descending cartridge aids in its discharge. During the remainder of the recoil of the breech-block, the normal force of the spring 1 I, as determined by adjustment of the screw 16, acts to hold the leading cartridge C upon the magazine-lips, ready for the counterrecoil. The action upon counter-recoil is represented in Fig. 9. The cam 12 has passed to the rear of the roll 10 in Aits recoil, and is shown in its full-line position as having reached the roll in its return and loaded the spring 1| to its maximum. During the travel of the cam to its dashline position, the maximum spring-load is placed upon the chains of the magazine to lower the cartridge, as indicated in dash-lines at as the breech-block continues to push it along the lips |22. This maximum pressure upon the cartridge .is also available to urge it dow-n, as will be seen 20^`at with the flange at the primer-end fully seated in the lips of the face-piece. The breechblock is here shown in dash-lines. At this point the vpassage of the cam beyond the roll leaves only the normal force of the spring 1| upon the nmagazine-chains, this being utilized to maintain the succeeding cartridge in the magazine in contact with the breech-block of the gun.
With continued pressure of the trigger upon :the gun., the delivery .from the magazine, as above described, continues automatically until the live cartridges are exhausted. At this time, the dummy C" reaches the delivery-opening of the mouthpiece M, and its plunger |41 trips the interlock mechanism of the gun to hold this cocked. The .magazine may now be released from the gun by actuating the latch-lever l and removed to receive its supplyby cartridges, as already described. It should be observed, that in the feed =of the cartridges .from the magazine, there is applied to them., throughout the greater part of the feeding cycle, an advancing effect which is varied in accordance with the work to be done. The normal or minimum .force of the spring 1| is utilized when this is adequate and increased under the power of the gun during both the recoil and ycounter-recoil, when the application of a greater force is more effective. Wear and resistance to movement of vthe breech-block are ,thus lessened. There is no 'spring to be loaded v| manually during the iilli-ng of the magazine and no necessity for considering the magnitude of the load for varying numbers of cartridges. The spring employed is small, and the bulk and cost nf the .magazine are therefore decreased. During both loading and feeding, the resistance of the cartridges to movement through the magazine is minimized, because there is absent the friction resulting from contact with one another. `There .s a .further decrease in friction because the cartridges may turn between the chain-projections in their travel, this being facilitated by the presence of the rotatable chain-rolls 60. The cartridges .being held in .definitely spaced relation at `.iboth ends by the chain-projections, they cannot become -displaced and thereby .cause jamming.
Having described my invention, what I claim as -new and desire to :secure vby .Letters Patent of the United States is:
7 1. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing `7 0 having opposite 'side walls and provided in its lower portion with an opening through which the cartridges may pass, a vertical series of shelves fixed to each of the opposite side walls Sand being arranged in ,pairs with the shelves Lof each pair spaced from each other transversely 11 of the casing and thus arranged for engagement with the ends only of horizontal series of cartridges, and an endless conveyor arranged to travel in engagement with successive series of the cartridges while leaving said cartridges free for movement upon the shelves.
2. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing having opposite side Walls and provided in its lower portion with an opening through which the cartridges may pass, a vertical series of shelves xedY to each of the opposite side walls and being arranged in pairs with the shelves of each pair spaced from each other transversely of the casing and thus arranged for engagement With the ends only of horizontal series of cartridges, and an endless conveyor arranged to travel ,along the shelves of each of the side walls and provided with portions arranged to engage one of the ends of each cartridge to advance it along the shelves while permitting it to rotate about its longitudinal axis.
3. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing having opposite side walls, a vertical series of shelves fixed to each of the opposite side walls and lbeing arranged in pairs with the shelves of each pair spaced from each other transversely of the casing and thus arranged for engagement with the ends only of horizontal series of cartridges, and an endless conveyorY arranged to travel in engagement with successive series of the cartridges while leaving said cartridges free for movement upon the shelves, the casing having a mouthpiece at which one of the pairs of shelves terminates and to which the conveyor delivers the cartridges 'to fall by gravity for utilization. 4. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing provided with an opening, a series of shelves projecting from opposite sides of the casing and i upon which the cartridges may rest, endless conveyor means movable in opposite directions along successive shelves in engagement with the cartridges to eiiect their travel over said shelves, and
means, associated with the shelves farthest removed irom the casing-opening for limiting the movement of the cartridges into said magazine in the direction of cartridge introduction from said opening and through which limiting means the cartridge-engaging means passes.
5. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing provided with a mouth-piece having a passage and extending into the casing and upon which mouthpiece said casing rests, a series of cartridge-supports arranged one above another in the casing with the lowest supports in the casing terminating at the mouthpiece, an endless conveyor movable along the supports, and means arranged to move the conveyor alternately in opposite directions along the supports and from the lowest supports through the wall of the mouthpiece, thereby to introduce cartridges into or deliver them from the casing.
6. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing, two series of shelves projecting in alined pairs from opposite sides of the casing with the shelves of each pair spaced from each other so that only `5 the ends of the cartridges may rest upon them, two series of rolls rotatable at opposite sides of the casing and at opposite ends of the series'of shelves, an endless chain movable over each series of rolls and along the shelves and having projections engaging the ends of the cartridges loosely to cause them to roll upon the shelves while traveling thereover, and means for advancing the chains.
7. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing,
a, series ofshelves projecting inialined pairs .from
8. A magazine for cartridges having grooves at the primer ends comprising a casing, a series of shelves projecting from opposite sides of the casing and upon which the ends of the cartridgesl may rest, rotatable rolls attached to each of said opposite sides of the casing and located at the opposite ends of the shelves, endless chains movable over said rolls and thence along the shelves, the chain at one side of the casing having rolls entering the grooves at the primer-ends of the cartridges and the chain at the opposite side of the "casing being provided with projections extending between the bullets of said cartridges, andmeans for advancing the chains.
9. The combination with a machine-gun provided with a breech-block movable in opposite directions during a loading cycle, of mechanism for supplying cartridges to the gun and comprising a conveyor movable to advance a series of cartridges toward the gun, an expansion-spring acting upon the conveyor to cause the advance of the cartridges, means effective throughout the loading cycle to compress the spring, a substantially triangular cam movable by the breechblock and having a surface inclined to an apex, and
means operated by said cam in itsV movement by the breechblock for compressing the spring, said cam being inclined from the apex to permit the force thus stored in the spring to be applied to the conveyor.
10. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing provided with a mouthpiece, a conveyor guided to travel in the casing and having means by dwhich cartridges introduced through the mouthpiece are maintained 'in spaced relation, and means arranged to enter a space in the conveyor which has failed to receive a cartridge and to contact with a cartridge in the conveyor thereby to prevent movement of said conveyor in the direction of cartridge-introduction.
1l. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing provided with a mouthpiece, a conveyor guided to travel in the casing and having spaced por- -tions for engagement during the travel of the conveyor with successive cartridges introduced through the mouthpiece, and a member at the opening of the mouthpiece into the casing mounted Within the casing for movement by the introduced cartridges and with the end toward the mouthpiece movable between the spaced portions of the conveyor from between which portions the cartridge is missing and arranged in said movement to contact with a cartridge in the conveyor, thereby to prevent movement of said conveyor in the direction of cartridge-introduction.
12. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing provided with a mouthpiece, a conveyor guided to travel in the casing in either of two directions and having spaced portions for engagement during the travel of the conveyor with successive cartridges introduced through the mouthpiece,
`and a stop member at the opening of the mouthpiece into the casing for the conveyor movable between the spaced portions from between which portions the cartridge is missing, said stop member being arranged for engagement with the cartridges in the conveyor, thereby to prevent travel of the conveyor in the direction of cartridge-introduction but permitting movement in the opposite direction.
13. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing provided with a mouthpiece, a conveyor guided to travel in the casing and having spaced projections for engagement in the travel of the conveyor with successive cartridges introduced through the mouthpiece, a stop pivoted upon the casing at the opening of the mouthpiece into said casing and having a portion receiving contactY of the ,Y ,Y
cartridges to hold it above their path and another portion movable into said path if a cartridge is missing and arranged for engagement with the succeeding cartridge in the conveyor to prevent the introduction of said cartridge into the casing.
14. A cartridge-magazine comprising a casing, an endless conveyor guided to travel in the casing as a permanent part of the magazine and having locating means by which the cartridges introduced into the casing are maintained in spaced relation and in definite longitudinal positions, and a mouthpiece for the casing arranged to receive the cartridges one by one and deliver them successively to the conveyor to assume thereon their spaced relation, said mouthpiece having means which compels the registration of the cart ridges with the longitudinal locating means of the conveyor.
15. A magazine for cartridges having cases provided With grooves at the primer-ends comprising a casing, a conveyor guided to travel in the casing and having cartridge-spacing projections which include portions entering the grooves in the cartridge-cases at the primer-ends, and a mouthpiece for the casing through which the cartridges are introduced, said mouthpiece having a projection entering the case-grooves and registering with the groove-entering portions of the conveyors.
16. A magazine for cartridges having cases provided with grooves at the primer-ends comprising a casing, a conveyor guided to travel in the casing and having cartridge-spacing projections which include portions entering the grooves in the cases at the primer-ends, and a 14 mouthpiece for the casing through which the cartridges are introduced, said mouthpiece having a projection entering the case-grooves and registering with the groove-entering portions of the conveyors and a second projection preventing the advance of the cartridges through the mouthpiece unless their grooves are alined with the first-mentioned projection.
NORMAN E. MARINER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file o1 this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 454,403 Odkolek June 16, 1891 486,938 Odkolek Nov. 29, 1892 774,827 Butler Nov. 15, 1904 819,153 Michele May 1, 1906 1,314,013 Mulvey Aug. 26, 1919 1,399,440 Payne Dec. 6, 1921 1,451,339 Kottas Apr. 10, 1923 1,695,508 Skinner et al Dec. 18, 1928 2,011,889 Birkigt Aug. 20, 1935 2,161,696 Blacker June 6, 1989 2,180,741 Lisov Nov. 21, 1939 2,192,677 Hoagland et al Mar. 5, 1940 2,335,449 Salisbury Nov. 30, 1943 2,366,395 Hall Jan. 2, 1945 2,375,437 OHare May 8, 1945 2,375,452 Webb May 8, 1945 2,383,830 Trotter et al. Aug. 28, 1945 2,407,461 Vesely Sept. 10, 1946 2,415,413 Burgess Feb. 11, 1947 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 2,332 Great Britain of 1914 355,767 Great Britain Feb. 21, 1930 373,677 Italy Aug. 1, 1939 527,675 Germany June 20, 1931 557,806 France May 12, 1923 616,095 Germany July 19, 1935 OTHER REFERENCES Ser. No. 278,498, Hertel (A. P. C.) pub. May 4, 1943.
War Department Technical Manual TM-9-227, 20- mm. Automatic Gun M1, and 20 mm. Aircraft Automatic Gun AN-MZ, June 1, 1943.
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|US486938 *||16 May 1892||29 Nov 1892||odkolek|
|US774827 *||30 Jan 1899||15 Nov 1904||Paul Butler||Machine for priming cartridge-shells.|
|US819153 *||28 Sep 1904||1 May 1906||Bernard Gasparro||Repeating firearm or rifle.|
|US1314013 *||4 Jan 1919||26 Aug 1919||Cartridge-feeding device|
|US1399440 *||5 Dec 1919||6 Dec 1921||Auto Ordnance Corp||Gun|
|US1451339 *||8 Jul 1921||10 Apr 1923||Arthur Kottas||Magazine firearm|
|US1695508 *||22 Dec 1924||18 Dec 1928||Skinner Asa H||Automatic gun|
|US2011889 *||21 Dec 1933||20 Aug 1935||Marc Birkigt||Magazine for the automatic feeding of objects|
|US2161696 *||9 Sep 1936||6 Jun 1939||Stewart Blacker Latham Valenti||Ammunition magazine|
|US2180741 *||9 Jun 1938||21 Nov 1939||John Lisov||Magazine for firearms|
|US2192677 *||20 Jun 1936||5 Mar 1940||Automatic Guns Inc||Cartridge feed for guns|
|US2335449 *||9 Jul 1941||30 Nov 1943||Bell Aircraft Corp||Combat airplane|
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|International Classification||F41A9/76, F41A9/00, F41A9/40|
|Cooperative Classification||F41A9/40, F41A9/76|
|European Classification||F41A9/40, F41A9/76|