|Publication number||US2423446 A|
|Publication date||8 Jul 1947|
|Filing date||14 Aug 1942|
|Priority date||14 Aug 1942|
|Publication number||US 2423446 A, US 2423446A, US-A-2423446, US2423446 A, US2423446A|
|Inventors||Grant Jr Harry C|
|Original Assignee||Specialties Dev Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Referenced by (7), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
July 8, 1947. C GRANT JR 2,423,446 APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING GUN CHARGERS Filed Aug. 14, 1942 2 Sheets Sheet 1 --------------i------------ 1 W H a 27 ELECTRICAL DETECT NG AND L97 i: 47
INVENTOR gay CQEZZZJ:
ATTORNEY July 8, 1947. c, GRANT, JR 2,423,446
APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING GUN CHARGERS Filed Aug. 14, 1942 Y 2 Sheets-Shet 2 INVENTOR BY afiazzzf z ATTORNEY Patented July 8, 1947 APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING GUN CHARGERS Harry C. Grant, Jr., New York, N. Y., assignor to Specialties Development Corporation, Bloomfield, N. 3., a corporation of New Jersey Application August 14, 1942, Serial No. 454,790
The present invention relates to gun chargers for automatic machine guns and the like, and more particularly to a method and apparatus for controlling the operation of such gun chargers.
In automatic machine guns, for example, of the Browning type, the firing pin may be released either mechanically or electrically to fire a cartridge in the cartridge chamber of the barrel of the gun. The recoil caused by the explosion of the cartridge causes a bolt mechanism or charging mechanism to be moved rearward with respect to the cartridge chamber. Upon rearward movement, the charging mechanism extracts the case of the fired cartridge from the chamber and moves a. cartridge belt or clip one notch to present a succeeding cartridge adapted to be inserted into the chamber. After the charging mechanism has been moved to its rearmost position and has been fully retracted, it is returned or moved forwardly by a strong spring or the like. In the course of its return stroke the charging mechanism ejects the case of the fired cartridge from the gun and inserts the succeeding cartridge into the chamber.
While the firing pin is released, the gun fires each time the charging mechanism returns to its extreme forward position. If no trouble develops, the cycle of operation of the charging mechanism may be repeated at a rate of between 400 and 1000 times per minute.
Once the gun has been provided with a supply of ammunition and has been fired, firing should continue automatically until the supply of ammunition is exhausted, unless any one of a number of possible difiiculties occurs. For example, a cartridge may fail to explode or may fail to develop a recoil force sufficient to move the bolt or charging mechanism through the extracting, ejecting and loading cycle. Also, the charging mechanism may fail to extract the empty case i of a fired cartridge, which may jam in the chamber and resist removal on the first attempt; or the charging mechanism may fail to properly advance the cartridge belt or clip one notch, whereby difiiculty may be encountered in inserting the succeeding cartridge and ejecting the case of the fired cartridge. In the event that the bolt or charging mechanism fails to function properly for any of the foregoing reasons or other difiiculties, the gun will cease firing, and it will become necessary to recock the bolt or charging mechanism by moving it rearwardly and then releasing it to complete the extracting, ejecting and reloading operations and restore firing of the gun.
Heretofore, devices known as gun chargers (which are not to be confused with the bolt or charging mechanism) have been employed for mechanically recocking or initiating the operation of the charging mechanism. None of these devices has been found fully satisfactory, because the control means therefor were unreliable in performance, and relatively slow in response to slowing down or stopping of the firing of the gun, whereby relatively long delays were occasioned before the gun was restored to its normal firing action.
The present invention aims to provide a rapid and reliable method and apparatus for detecting and controlling the operation of the gun charger of machine guns and the like. The invention further aims to provide an improved, simple and practical detecting and controlling apparatus which is light in weight, occupies a minimum amount of space and is constructed of a minimum number of parts.
An object of the invention is to provide a detecting and controlling apparatus which provides an electric current of a predetermined value in response to the normal movement of the charging mechanism adapted to prevent the actuation of the gun charger, whereby, in the event the charging mechanism slows down substantially or stops, current of a sufficient magnitude fails to be provided and the gun charger is no longer prevented from being actuated.
Another object is to provide a detecting and controlling apparatus in accordance with the foregoing; wherein an electric current is supplied for controlling the actuation of the gun charger, and an electric current is generated in response to the normal firing of the gun which opposes the supplied current so as to prevent operation of the controlling apparatus of the gun charger during the normal firing of the gun.
Another object is to provide a method of detecting the slowing down or stoppage of the charging mechanism, in accordance with the foregoing objects.
A further object consists in the combination and arrangement of parts whereby the foregoing objects and advantages may be accomplished.
Other and further objects of the invention will be obvious upon an understanding of the illustrative embodiment about to be described, or will be indicated in the appended claims, and various advantages not referred to herein Will occur to one skilled in the art upon employment of the invention in practice.
A preferred embodiment of the invention has been chosen for purposes of illustration and de- Figure 3 is a wiring diagram of an electric cir-ci cuit for operating the detectingand. controlling device, in accordance with the invention.
Figure 4 is a wiring diagram of an electric circuit, illustrating another embodiment ofllthe invention.
pressure medium operated ram or plunger mechanism 20, comprising a cylinder 2i and a piston assembly including a piston 22 and a piston rod 23 slidably mounted in the cylinder. The piston 5 rod is adapted to extend out of one end of the Referring to the drawings, and-more-particu l arly to Figure 1, there is shown a machine gun, for example, of the Browning type which, generally comprises a barrel assembly 8 and a-bolt mechanism or charging. mechanism 9 (not shown :inadetail), located in; a; housing Vorcasing Iii. The n'charging; :mechanismis of the: usual, desigm-and comprises a number of slidably -movable and "reciprocating parts :which :are adapted w to "be asmoved rearwartdly-or retracted by the: recoil re- :::sultinglzfr.om the'explosion of the fired cartridges, eandg'adapted to be mov'ediorwardly or returned by resilient. means, suchras ayspring H or the dike. which becomes energizedloy-the recoil. Dur- King :thezreciprocatiomof theserparts; the normal operating cycle of the gun is carriedtout. 'This -cyclercomprises: the steps-.of-removing; a cartridge '5 "fromsthei cartridge. beltland inserting'it :into 'the :chamber ;of :the barrel, firing the cartridge,- with- I d-rawingithe empty cartridge case--from the chamberrmovinglthe belt one notch, and ejecting :the .-::cartridge case':fr.om the housing :10. 'Sincethe ;".QOII.StIl1CtiOn' iandxoperation of such, a gcharging --;mechanism iswalla-known :to those skilled: in-:the art, and since the charging mechanism-perse does not monstitute a: .part of .the present invenr :tion; a? detailed illustrationa-nd description there- :of; is. not;believed--to;be necessary.
-.:In':. the: event :the I normal :operatingor, firing heicgun must; ,be--'recharged orwrecocked before iit ywill-goperate automatically again. :To-accomjpHSh', fthiS,i afguncha-rger l2,- suitablyuencased, :mayszbe-aattached-toreither=side ,of the gun casing or housing I and mayzzbersoperatively connected 3:130, thecharging mechanism: by a bolt-or stud l4. flheistud or bolt l l reciprocates with; and maybe part .ofr-thez, charging; mechanism; and iszadapted :to wextend through-an elongated slot 1 in-the --housing and-.extend-into the: gun charger casing.
The gun charger 42, preferably, ispneumatically-operatedby, afluid pressure medium; such as high pressure carbon-dioxide, compressed-air or any suitable gas storedtin-a-container E6. The pressure-medium is. supplied-to the gun charger by a-hose or tube II- connectedto a valve l8 which ,isadapted to -.be .operated by suitable .devices (not shown), actuated in response to the :failure of the charging mechanism to reciprocate in its normal, manner. I. Suitable (electrically operated 'devicesimaybe utilized. for detecting. the stop- ..page .or .slowing downof the chargingmechanism, which mayberassociated .with. the chargingmechanism and the guncharger. 'Thesedetectingl'devices. may beielectrically connected to a control panel, a source ,oielectricallenelf y,and i'other electrical devicesby'means of ,a cable is *containing electrical conductors,
In Figure 2, the essential operating parts of thejguncharger lrl are illustrated diagrammati- "cally; The gun charger is provided with afluid cylinder, and carries a ramming head 2 1 positioned ior'movement in the path of a rider assembly connected to the reciprocating bolt or stud H- of the charging mechanism.
When the ram or plunger mechanism 29 is operated, the, piston rod 23 moves out of the cy-linder, andthe ramming head is adapted to engage the rider assembly 7:5 and move it toward the-left; that is, in rearward or retracted posi- 'tion-with-respect to the gun. The piston assembly, including the piston rod and the piston, and a. the ramming head may be returned to their initial position, as shown in. Figure 2, by resilient .meanssuch as a spring '25 mounted in the cylin- ."CXQlEgOf; the gun.is:1interrupted:an'd'firing ceases, a. seat 35 of the exhaust port when the surface The endof the cylinder oppositethe endfrom -which the-piston rod is adapted to extend is provided with a port 2'! foradmitting the pressure mediumIinback of thepiston 22, and for permitting the pressure mediumtobe exhausted. A tube or conduit 29 connects the port 2'! to the valve l8, which is'adapted torcontrol the admissioneof'the pressure medium to the cylinder 2! andgthe exhaust of the medium to the atmosphere.
The valve i8 comprises an inlet 3?! in communicationwith the hose H'supplying'the pressure medium 'from the container 15; a .valve seat 3! adjacent the inlet 39; a valve chamber 32; a port 34. in communication with the valve chamber 32'and-leading-to the tube 2!); and an exhaust port or vent 35 in communication-with the valve chamber 32 and having an annular seat 38 facing the inlet valve seat 3!. A-suitable valve member -37 i slidably mounted-in the valve chamber 32 for controlling the admission and exhaust of the pressure medium. The valve member 3? 'may have a sealing surface '39 atone end-for seating on the valve seat 3!, and may have a sealing surface-4E9 at its-other end for seating on the valve seat 36.
In order to normally close'the inlet '38, there is provided a stem 41, slidably mounted in the valve body and extending through the exhaust port' 35, having one end thereof attached to the valve member 37 and having its other end extending-outwardly of the valve body; and a bell crank lever 42 for engaging the outwardlyextending end of the stem 4! and moving it inwardly into the valve body tocause the surface -39 of 'the valve member 3'! to be moved against its seat 3| The lever .2 is pivoted at A4, and has an arm 45, engaging the free end of the stem 4|, and a second arm 46, held downwardly by a -spring1'l, or the like, whereby the arm '45 is maintained in a position to urge the stem 4| into the valve body. Preferably, asolenoid'fifl, or the like, is provided for rocking the arm 56. upwardly in opposition to the spring 41, whereby the arm' 45 is moved away from the stem M to, perfect operation of the valve in predetermined relation with the movement of the ram upon actuation thereof. For example, it may be desirable to maintain the valve is open until the bolt it has been moved by the ramming head into a position to reenergize the charging mechanism of the gun. This may be accomplished by suitable devices illustrated diagrammatically herein as comprising a lever 55 pivoted at 52 adapted to be engaged by a projection 5 on the rider as sembly when the bolt has been fully retracted, and a connecting rod 55 pivotally connected to the lever 5i and the arm d5 of the lever 52 adapted to effect return of the lever to its initial valve closing position upon engagement of the lever 51 by the projection 54. Since such devices do not constitute a part or" the present invention, a detailed description thereof is not necessary.
In order to eiiect operation of the valve con-- trolling solenoid 5c in the event of stoppage or slowing down of the reciprocating bolt M of the gun charging mechanism, suitable electrical detecting and controlling circuits are provided, which will now be described. In accordance with the invention, an electric current of a predetermined magnitude is generated during the-normal reciprocating movement of the bolt It, and the failure of current of such a magnitude to be generated due to the stoppage or slowing down of the bolt It determines the operation of the solenoid 50.
The current may be generated by any suitable means operatively associated with the rider assembly 25 connected to the bolt M. For purposes of illustration, the generating means may comprise a stationary, elongated, inductively wound coil lid extending lengthwise with respect to the charging mechanism of the gun, and a pern1a-- nent magnet 51 adapted to be reciprccated within the coil by having one end thereof secured to a bracket 52 carried by the rider assembl 2 3. This arrangement is adapted to generate in the coil 65 a current of the alternating or rapidly reversing type, and the generated current is adapted to be conducted to rectifying means by wires or conductors 5d and 65 connected to the respective terminals of the coil As illustrated more particularly in Figure 3. the alternating type current is adapted to be rectified to provide a direct or continuous type current, by a suitable rectifying circuit such as a bridge rectifier 6%, or the like, having terminals GT and t8. It will be understood; of course, that a direct or continuous type current be provided by operatively connecting a direct current generator, or the like, to the reciprocating bolt it, for instance, by suitable drive means for translating reciprocating rectilinear motion into rotary motion.
In Figure 3, a detecting and controlling circuit is shown which comprises a. source of electrical current, such as a battery it, the current of which will be referred to herein as the supplied current; the current generating means, including the coil "69, the magnet 64 and the bridge rectifier 6G for providing the generated current; a delayed action relay H or the like for operat ing a switch F2 for controlling the energization of the valve solenoid 5%; suitable resistance elements M, 75 and 76 adapted to be utilized for balancing the voltages of the supplied and generated currents; and a switch l? which is closed during the firing of the gun. This switch ll may be associated with the trigger of the gun, so that operation of the trigger closes the switch.
In accordance with the invention, the foregoing elements are arranged in the circuit so that the voltage of the supplied current is adapted to be opposed by the voltage of the generated current, to thereby prevent or decrease the flow of current through the relay H and prevent operation thereof to close the solenoid switch l2. To accomplish this, one of the terminals of the battery is electrically connected to the terminal of the like sign of the rectifier. For example, as shown, the negative terminal 18 of the battery 18 may be connected, by a wire is, to the negative terminal 58 of the bridge rectifier, and the positive terminal 88 of the battery may be operatively connected to the positive terminal 67 of the bridge rectifier as about to be described.
A Wire 8! connects the terminal to one terminal 82 of the switch Tl; a wire 84 connects the other terminal 85 of the switch Tl to one terminal 85 of the resistance element it which serves to reduce the voltage of the battery current at the other terminal 89 of the resistance element 7 5; a wire Bl connects the other terminal 83 of the resistance element it to one terminal GS of the relay 1i; and a wire HI connects the other terminal Q2 of the relay to the terminal El of the bridge rectifier 65. One terminal 93 of the relay controlled switch 12 is connected to the battery terminal 86 through the wires 8! and 8t and the switch 11.
The resistance element 15 is connected in the battery circuit by connecting one terminal thereof to the terminal 89 of the resistance element it and connecting the other terminal thereof to the wire '59 at 95. The resistance element I6 is connected across the bridge rectifier by connecting one terminal thereof to the wire 9! at 95 and connecting the other terminal thereof to the wire ii? at $5. With the foregoing arrangement, while is firing normally, the voltage 6 of the generated current across wires 19 and 9! is sub.- stantially equalto the voltage E of the supplied current across the Wire 3'! and the wire 19. By reason of the fact that voltages e and E are substantially equal and in opposition, nocurrent will flow through the relay ll whereby the relay is prevented from operating the switch 12. The generated current i will be dissipated by the resistance element 76, while the supplied current I will be dissipated by the resistance element 15.
In the event the gun slows down or stops firing, generation of current will decrease in magnitude or cease, whereby the circuit will no longer be affected by the generated current to prevent operation of the relay l I As the potential across the terminals 95 and 98 drops to a value less than that across terminals 89 and 95, an equalizing current is adapted to flow through the relay II to efiect operation of the switch i2. When the switch i2 is closed, current is adapted to be supplied to the solenoid 53 by a pair of conductors or wires 8? and 99, the wire 97 being connected to the battery terminal '18 and the wire 99 being connected to the battery terminal 80 through the wire 8!, switch Ti, wire 84 and switch 12.
In the foregoing described circuit, the battery voltage across its terminals i8 and 80 normally exceeds the rectified generated voltage across the telmlnals 6's and 63, and hence the resistanceelement 14 is utilized to equalize the effective battery voltage E and the generated voltage 6. While a fixed resistance element it is shown, it will be understood that a variable resistance element may be substituted therefor to accurately balance the voltages E and e.
, reciprocate .during normal firing.
It-will also be understood that the current generated-may have a voltage equal to the Voltage of the-battery current across the battery terminals. This-would eliminate the necessity for a compensating resistance element 74.
It is also contemplated that the voltage of the 7 andcausing a portion of the generated current to flow .through the relay and effect operation thereof, the relay i I may be of the polarized type, and may be so connected in the circuit that only the flow of battery current in one direction therethrough will close the switch 72 associated therewith, and that the fiow of generated current in the other direction therethrough will not effect operation of the switch 12. This type of relay eliminates the need for very accurately balancing the effective supplied voltage E. and the generated voltage e, provided of course that the voltage e only slightly exceedsthe voltage E during normal firing of the gun.
As mentioned herein, the relay, preferably, is of the slowv operating .or delayed action type which is affected by the fiow of current therethrough for a predetermined period, but is unaffected by transient currents of a duration less than the predetermined duration.
In. Figure 4, a modified circuit is illustrated wherein current is prevented from being sup- .pliedto the gun charger controlling solenoid 50 dur ng normal firing of the gun, by providing an electric current during the normal motion of the bolt mechanism or the like which afiects or energizes electrical means, such as a holding relay,
which holds open a switch for supplying current tothe solenoid'efi. This circuit may comprise a bat ery 1' having a pair of terminals I8 and 80', a \vire'li? connecting the terminal I8 to one terminal of the solenoid 56, and a wire 99 connecting the other terminal of the solenoid to the terminal 8E5 by means of suitable switches and conductors about to be described.
.' These means include a trigger switch '17 having a. terminal 82 connected by a wire 8I to the terminal. 09; and a switch IGI normally held in open circuit. position by. a spring H12 and adapted toJoemoved into closed circuit position by the action of a relay 504. One terminal I05 of the switch Iiil is connected to a terminal 85' of the switch by a wire I06, and the relay I04 is connected across the wires 91 and I06 in operaiive'connection with the terminals 18' and 80',
respectively, of the battery I0, whereby upon closing of the trigger switch the relay is energized by the battery current and the switch IOI is closed. The other terminal I01 of the switch +5.! is connected by a wire I09 to one terminal N0 of a switch I II having its other terminal I I2 nected by wires 61 and 68' to suitable means for generating an electric current during the normal movement of the guruwhich means may comprise acoil 150, a permanent magnet 6| adapted to reciprocate oroscillate within the coil 60, anda rectifier-circuit B6. The magnet. 6| is operatively associated with the rider assembly 25 of the bolt orgchargingmechanism of the gun adapted t The devices of the circuit illustrated in Figure 4 operate asfollows: Whenthetriggerswitch TI is closed tofire the gun, the solenoid. I04 is energized by the battery current to close the switch IOI in opposition to its spring I02. -As the gun proceeds to fire, the magnet BI .is oscillated or reciprocated with respect to the coil 60, whereby an electric current is generated in the coil, which energizes the relay H5 to move into open position the switch III in opposition to its spring Hi. When the switches TI, HH and lame in the foregoing'd'escribed positions, as illustrated in broken lines in Figure 4, current willnot flow to the gun charger controlling solenoid, 5i! and operation of the solenoid is prevented.
In the event the bolt or charging mechanism of the gun slows down or stops,.while the trigger switch is being held in closed position, the generating means will fail to provide an electric current altogether or a current of sufficient magnitude to energize .the relay H5 to enable it .to maintain the switch III in open circuit, position, whereby the switch III is moved into closed circuit position by its spring Il4. When this occurs, the'solenoid 50 is energized by the battery current flowing through wire 8|, switch 11', wire I06, switch Iill, wire I69, switch II! andwire 99; and, after passing through the solenoid winding returning through wire 91'. As the gun charger restores the boltor chargingmechanism of the gun to normal motion, current is again generated to energize the relay H5 which opens the switch 5 il, whereby battery current ceases to be supplied to the solenoid 50.
From the foregoing-description it will be seen that the present invention provides an improved method and apparatu for controlling gun chargers. The electrical circuits and device therein are simple in construction, and can be economically provided. The parts utilized are light in weight but are adapted to withstand any rough usage to which they. may be subjected. Furthermore, the apparatus is adapted to return the gun to firing operation in a minimum period .of time.
As various changes may be made in the form, construction and arrangement of the partsherein, without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention and without sacrificing anybf its advantages, it is to be understood that all matter herein is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in any limiting sense.
It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all thegeneric and specific features of the invention herein described, and all statements of the scope of the invention which, asa matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.
1. In a gun charger for a machinegun having a reciprocating member, the combination with said reciprocating member of a normally inactive charging mechanism for operating the reciprocating member, an electrical control:device constructed and arranged to be .actuatedby a current of a predetermined magnitude for rendering said charging mechanism operative, an energizing circuit including means for supplying said predetermined current to said control device, current generating means adapted to-be driven by said reciprocating member, and means constructed and arranged foroperation by :said generated current to render said energizingcircuit ineffective to supply current to .saidcontrol device during normal operation of said reciprocating member and upon failure of saidgenerated current to permit energization of said control device by said energizing circuit to thereby eifect operation of said Charging mechanism.
2. In a gun charger for a machine gun having a reciprocating member, the combination with said reciprocating member of a normally inactive charging mechanism for operating the reciprocating member, an electrical control device constructed and arranged to be actuated by a current of a predetermined magnitude for rendering said charging mechanism operative, an energizing circuit including means for supplying said predetermined current to said control device, current generating means adapted to be driven by said reciprocating member, and means constructed and arranged whereby said generated current opposes said supplied current to render said energizing circuit ineffective to supply current to said control device during normal operation of said reciprocating member and upon failure of said generated current to permit energization of said control device by said energizing circuit to thereby efiect operation of said charging mechanism.
3. In a gun charger for a machine gun having a reciprocating member, the combination with said reciprocating member of a normally inactive charging mechanism for operating the reciprocating member, an electrical control device constructed and arranged to be actuated by a current of a predetermined magnitude for rendering said charging mechanism operative, an energizing circuit including means for supplying said predetermined current to said control device, a second circuit, current generating means in said second circuit adapted to be driven by said reciprocating member, and connection means between said second circuit and said control device whereby said generated current opposes said supplied current, whereby said supplied current is ineffective to actuate said control device during normal operation of said reciprocating member and upon failure of said generated current is effective to actuate said control device to thereby effect operation of said charging mechanism.
4. In a gun charger for a machine gun having a reciprocating member, the combination with said reciprocating member of a normally inactive charging mechanism for operating the reciprocating member, an electrical control device constructed and arranged to be actuated by a current of a predetermined magnitude for rendering said charging mechanism operative, an energizing circuit including means for supplying said predetermined current to said control de- REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,395,294 Pierce Nov. 1, 1921 1,849,831 Hewlett Mar. 15, 1932 2,193,910 Wilson Mar, 19, 1940 2,090,521 Serrell Aug. 17, 1937 1,345,539 Fynn July 6, 1920 2,140,390 Lunge Dec. 13, 1938 2,180,751 Wagner Nov. 21, 1939 1,451,501 Fynn Apr. 10, 1923 1,451,502 Fynn Apr, 10, 1923 1,686,638 Pierce Oct. 9, 1928 2,331,934 Satterlee Oct. 19, 1943 2,228,090 Smith Jan. 7, 1941 2,332,773 Barnett-e Oct. 26, 1943 1,716,789 Missien June 11, 1929 2,334,863 Canetta et a1 Nov. 23, 1943 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 364,607 Great Britain July 4, 1930
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|U.S. Classification||89/1.4, 91/275, 91/469, 361/153|
|International Classification||F41A7/00, F41A7/04, F41A7/02|
|Cooperative Classification||F41A7/02, F41A7/04|
|European Classification||F41A7/02, F41A7/04|