|Publication number||US2336557 A|
|Publication date||14 Dec 1943|
|Filing date||30 Jul 1942|
|Priority date||30 Jul 1942|
|Publication number||US 2336557 A, US 2336557A, US-A-2336557, US2336557 A, US2336557A|
|Inventors||Mccallister Howard H|
|Original Assignee||Glenn L Martin Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (28), Classifications (17)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 14, 1943. McCALLISTER 2,336,557
' FLUSH GUN TURRET Filed July so, 1942 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. -.H.H. MC CALLISTER in M4 -ATTO Y Dec. 14, 1943. H. H. MOCALLISTER ,3
FLUSH .GUN TURRET Filed July so, 1942 4 Sheets-Sheet '2' INVENTOR. H. H. MCCALLISTER Dec. 14, 1943. H. H. MCCALLISTER 2,336,557
I FLUSH GUN TURRET Filed Jul so, 1942 y 4 Sheets-Sheet s uvmvrok. H.'H. Mc CALLISTER v mf ATTO Y Dec. 14, 19 43. H, MQCALLISTER 2,336,557
FLUSH GUN TURRET.
" Filed July 30, 1942 '4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. H.H. MC GALLISTER ATT',
Fatented Dec. 14, 194 3- Howard E. MciCallister, Parkvllle, Md., ass ignorto The Glenn L. Martin Company, Middle River, Md, a corporation or Maryiand Application .t'uly 39, 1942, Serial No. 452,856
large field of fire and yet offer a minimum of- :lrag. Manyattempts have been made to attain this goal, but heretofore turrets, of the partially retractable, fully retractable or stationary type, have been so designed that they must be proiected into the airstream during all firing positions, with the result that undesirable drag is created. This turret drag has been held account able'for cutting as high as twenty M. P. H. from the speed of an airplane and this figure will naturally increase as the speed of airplanes increases.
It is, therefore, one object of the present invention to provide a turret which when in inactive position, lies flush :with' the surrounding Figure 4 is a front elevation, partly in section, taken at right angles to Figure 3,
Figure 5 is a fragmentary perspective view of another form of the invention,
Figure 6 is aside elevation, partly in section, of the'form shown in Figure 5, showing, in solid lines, the guns in flush position and, in dotted lines, the guns in extreme elevated position, and
Figure '7 is a view similar to Figure 6 showing the guns in an extreme firing position.
Referring to the drawings:
Figure 1 is an illustration of the basic principle of the present invention showing diagramskin of the structure ,to which it is attached,
which during substantially the entire range of fire, lies flush with the surroundingskin with the exception of a portion of the barrel of the gun, and which during extreme firing positions, protrudes slightly into the airstream.
Another object is to provide a turret which lies substantially flush with the surrounding skin of the structure by which it is carried during.
substantially its entire range of fireand which only slightly protrudes into the airstream during extreme firing position.
Another object of the invention isto provide a-turret which lies flush with the surrounding skin or the structure to which it is attached and a which maybe remotely controlled about several of 'its axes so as to be capable of assuming optimum ranges of fire., Further objects of the present invention will become more apparent from the description of the accompanying drawings which form a part hereof and wherein like reference numbers refer to like parts.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is 'a diagrammatic perspective view.
depicting the basic principle of the present invention,
Figure 2 is a side elevation partly in section, of the present invention, showing, in solid lines, the guns in flush firing position and, 'in dotted lines, the guns in extreme elevated position,
Figure 3 is a side elevation, partly in section,
showing the guns in an extreme firing position,
member l3 (see Figure 2).
matically, the several axes about which the guns 5 are adapted to be rotated. More specifically, the guns 5 are hingedly attached to a cradle l, which is moved in train about its vertical axis X--X by means of its attachment to ring 8,
-- forms a mounting for the guns, moves with cradle I in elevation and train and is also capable of still further motion longitudinally of the axis of the guns with the respect to cradle l, by means of bell cranks 35 and 36, hingedly attached to block 8 and cradle 1. Thus it will be seen that the guns 5 are mounted with respect to their immediate support in such a way as to rotate about their vertical axes to train the guns 5, in such a way as to rotate about their horizontal axes to depress and elevate the guns 5; and in such a way as to move along their longitudinal axis so as to permit an axial longitudinal thrust. These movements may occur simultaneously so as to give the guns 5 a universal movement.
Applying the aforementioned basic principles to Figures 2 to 4, it will be seen that guns 5 are adapted to be moved about their vertical axis by means of their attachment to cradle I which in turn is attached to ring 8 by arms Hi and i2. Ring 8 carries wheels or rollers 9 adapted to vwork in track or ring ll carried by mounting member 13. Ring 8 is further provided with annular rack H, the teeth of which mesh with.
the gear IQ of a suitable motor 2| which is rigidly fixed to mounting member l3 and which is seen that upon starting motor 2| the ring 8 will be turned so as to in train.
impart motion to the guns 5' Guns 5 are moved about their horizontal axis by means of their attachment to cradle 1 which rigidly carries a quadrant-shaped member 23 provided with arcuate rack 25. The teeth of rack 25 mesh with the gear 21 of a suitable motor 29 which is rigidly fixed to turret member 3| attached to and rotatable with ring 8. Motor 29 is likewise adapted to be remotely controlled by any suitable remote control mechanism. It will, therefore, be seen that upon starting motor 29the quadrant 23 will be turned so as to impart elevational movement to guns 5.
It is necessary when it is desired to fire foreand aft directly along and in close proximity with the fuselage, as shown in Figure 3, that the guns 5 be given an upward longitudinal axial thrust so that the guns will clear the adjacent portions of the fuselage. This is'accomplished by means of guns 5 being hingedly attached at 33 and 34 to hell crank levers 35 and 36, which are in turn hingedly attached at 31 and 38 to cradle l. The lower ends of levers 35 and 36 hingedly carry rack 39, the teeth of which are adapted to mesh with gear 4| of a suitable motor 43 rigidly carried by quadrant 73 and which is adapted to be remotely controlled by any suitable remote control mechanism. It will, therefore, be seen that upon starting motor 43, the rack 39 will be moved so as to impart an upward longitudinal axial thrust to the guns 5 so that the guns will clear the adjacent portions of the fuselage.
Without the provision of a switch 45, continued operation of motor 29 would result in the guns 5 striking the surrounding fuselage portions. However,'when the guns 5 are maneuvered to a posi-' tion where they are about to strike the fuselage, arm 41 carried by cradle 1 contacts switch 45 to start motor 43, which gives the guns an upward and forward motion through rack 39 and bell cranks 35 and 36. Therefore, when the guns are to be fired fore and aft and in close proximity with the fuselage, continued operation of the motor 29 will result in the gun barrels assuming a position adjacent to, and parallel with, the fuselage as shown in Figure 3.
Inthis form of the invention the turret is provided with a streamlined fairing 49, rigidly carried by the gun mount 6 so as to fill the gap between the gun butts and the adjacent fuselage skin when the guns are in retracted flush position. As shown in .Figures 3 and 4, this fairing 49 projects slightly out into the airstream when the guns assume an extreme firing position.
The means for disposing of elected shells and links consists of chutes 5| and 53 merging into chute 55, the end of which extends into a duct 51 and is constructed of a flexible material to accommodate variations in elevation. Ammunition containers 59 are fixed to, and rotate with, turrent member3l.
' As mentioned above, the motors 2|, 29 and 43 are of any suitable construction and are adapted 7 to be operated by a suitable remote control mechanism locatedat a central firing station. These remote control mechanisms are constructed so as to compute and'compensatefor relative differential movement drift, etc'., and are well known in the art,
Figures 5 to '7 show another form of the present invention, wherein the barrels of the guns 5 are completelyretracted into recesses 6|, so that the turret and gun barrels form. a continuation of the surrounding-streamlined surfaces of the.
fuselage. The operation of-thisform of the invention is the sameas that described in connection with Figures 2 to 4 and to repeat the description of the operation in connection with Figures 5 to '7 would serve no useful purpose. Therefore, only the differences between the two forms will be pointed out.
The difl'erences between this form and the form covered by Figures 2 to 4 reside in the fact that the gun barrels are fully retractable into flush position and that the streamlined fairing 63, which corresponds to the streamlined fairing 49 of the form shown in Figures 2 to 4, by means of its attachment to guns 5, is never projected out into the airstream. Fairing 63 is attached along the axis Y-Y to the gun mount 6 of guns 5 by means of arms 65 rigidly affixed at one end of fairing 63 and swivelly attached to gun mount 6 at the other end. Fairing 63 is likewise pro vided with cutaway sections to permitthe passage therethrough of those parts of the gun mount which protrude above the surface of the surrounding structure during the assumption of various firing positions. Therefore, it will be seen that the method of attachment of fairing 63 to guns 5 will permit elevational movement of guns 5 without any movement being imparted to the fairing 63. In other words, fairing 63 will lie flush with the surrounding surfaces of the fuselage during all elevational movement of guns 5 due to the concentric swivel mounting of fairing 63 along the axis Y-Y of the guns 5. Selecting means are also provided at the sighting station to render switch 45 operative and inoperative. Switch 45 is in operable condition during all firing positions but when it is desired to recess the gun, the switch is rendered inoperable to preclude any longitudinal movement from being imparted to the gun mount,
must be provided to support that end of the fairguns 5 dicati ng means ing opposite that end attached to guns 5 by arms 65. In the present form, this support consists of hinge 61, hinged at one end to fairing 63 and at the other end to gun mount 6. The hinge point of hinge 61 is provided with a spring 69, of sumcient strength to overcome the aforementioned suction but not so strong-as to overcome motor 29. Fairing 63 is also provided with a portion II, which is adapted to abut against portion 13, carried by structure member l3, so that the fair- -ing 63 will not follow the butt ends of guns 5 during their elevational movement.
To complete the streamlining of the present form, there are also provided additional fairings 15 and 16. Fairing and naturally follows the elevational movement of the guns, but it is of such limited area that the additional drag created by its presence in the airstream has been, found to be negligible. Fairing all interflt so as to present a continuation of the surrounding streamlined surfaces of the fuselage.
Contact 11. is carried by fairing 16 and is adapted to brush contaot 18, carried by fuselage l4, when thegun barrels 5 are aligned with recesses=6l so as to complete-a circuit 19 to an inpositioned. on the instrument panel in the sighting station. Therefore, when desires to lower the guns into reposition he manipulates the turret until the indicating means shows that the sun 15 is rigidly carried by the 16 is rigidly supported by i and rotatable with ring 8. Fairings 63, I5 and 15 barrels are aligned with recesses SI, and further operation of the motor 28 causes the guns to assume their flush position.
It will, therefore, be seen that Ihave provided an improved turret which when in non-use lies fiush with thelstructure to which it is attached, which during substantially its entire rangev of fire lies substantially fiush with the structure to which it is attached, andwhich when in extreme firing positions is slightly projected out into the airstream.
It will be understood, of course, that certain changes, modifications, and alterations may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention and it will also be understood that while the invention has been described in connection with aircraft that its adaptability is not necessarily limited thereto.
I claim as my invention:' r
1. A gun turret mounted in anaperture of a streamline supporting structure, said turret being mounted for rotation about a vertical axis and including a gun mount for a plurality of guns, a supporting structure for the gun mount, said supporting structure pivoted with respect to the turret structure about a horizontal axis.
said horizontal axis being below the surface of the supporting structure, the top surface of the turret lying substantially flush with the surface of the supporting structure, and means whereby the gun mount may move forwardly and upwardly with respect to the pivoted supporting structure so that the guns may fire along the surface of the streamlined supporting structure. 1
2. A gun turret for flush mounting in a supporting structure having an aperture therein, said tiu'ret including a gun mount, a gun carried by said gun mount, and a two-part fairing-covering the gun mount and gun, forming the top of the turret to cause the top surface of the $111:-
ret to conformwith the surface of the mounting structure, and substantially filling the said aperture, one of the parts ofthe said fairing being rigidly carried by the said gun and the other part being swivelly attached at one end of the said gun mount along the horizontal-axis of the gun mount and the other end being hingedly attached to the said gun.
3. A gun turret mounted in a streamlined supporting structure having an aperture therein, 5 the said turret including a gun mount, a gun carried by the said gun mount, and a two-part streamlined fairing covering the said gun'mount and gun, forming a flush top forcthe turret, the gun mount adapted to be rotatec about its horizontal axis, the fairing substantially filling the said aperture, one of the parts of the fairing being rigidly carried by the said gun and the other part being swivelly attached at one end to the gun mount along the horizontal axis of the gun mount and the other end being hingedly attached to the said gun.
4. A gun turret mounted on a supporting structure having an aperture and a recess therein, the said turret including agun mount, a gun having a barrel portion carried by the said gun mount, and two-part streamlined fairing enclosing the gun mount and a portion of the gun, the
gun mount adapted to be rotated about its horizontal'axis, the fairing substantially filling the said aperture, one of the parts of the fairing being rigidly carried by the said gun and the other part being swivelly attached at one end to the gun mount along the horizontal axis of the gun mount and the other end being hingedly attached to the gun. the barrel portion of the said gun retractable within the recess formed in the said portion structure.
porting structure having an aperture therein, the
said turret including a gun mount, at least one gun carried by said gun mount, a streamlined fairing rigidly carried by said gun substantially filling the said aperture and forming a continuation of the streamlined surface of the said supo porting structure, and means to rotate said turret about its horizontal and vertical axes and means to move the guns forwardly and upwardly with respect tothe turret and supporting structure for firing along the surface of said support- 5 ing structure.
HOWARD H. MOCALLIS'I'ER.
5. A gun turret mounted on a streamlined sup-
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|U.S. Classification||89/37.17, 89/36.13, 89/37.1, 114/15, 89/37.16, 89/33.4, 114/5, 89/33.16, 89/919, 89/935|
|International Classification||B64D7/02, F41A23/20|
|Cooperative Classification||B64D2700/62649, F41A23/20, B64D7/02|
|European Classification||B64D7/02, F41A23/20|