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Publication numberUS1399440 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date6 Dec 1921
Filing date5 Dec 1919
Priority date5 Dec 1919
Publication numberUS 1399440 A, US 1399440A, US-A-1399440, US1399440 A, US1399440A
InventorsPayne Oscar V
Original AssigneeAuto Ordnance Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Gun
US 1399440 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

O. V. PAYNE.

GUN. APPLICATION FILED DEC- 5.1919.

Patented Dec. 6, 1921.

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1770077302 .0410? Illayne 0. v. PAYNE.

GUN.

APPLICATION FILED DEC- 5,19I9- 1,399,440, Patented Dec. 6, 1921.'

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APPLICATION FILED DEC-5.1919.

1,399,440; Patented Dec. 6, 1921.

4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.

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m w W m 4 (l'iiari My? 0. V. PAYNE.

GUN.

APPLICATION FILED DEC. 5. 1919.

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OSCAR V. PAYNE, OF CLEVELAND, OHIO, ASSIGN'OR TO AUTO-ORDINANCE CORPORA- "HON, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., A. CORPORATION OF NEW YORK.

GUN.

Specification of Iietters Patent. Patented Dec. (6, 1921.

Application filed December 5, 1919. Serial'No. 342,698.

I '0 all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, OSCAR V. PAYNE, a citizen of the United States of America, and resident of Cleveland, in the county of Cuyahoga and State of Ohio, have invented new and useful Improvements in Guns, of which the following is a specification.

This'invention relates to the feeding of cartridges to guns, whether manual or automatic, and to the control of the breech mechanism of automatic guns. The invention is particularly applicable to small arms and machine guns but may also be adapted to heavy guns. The invention is also particularly applicable to guns employing a belt cartridge feed, but in its broader aspects itis not so limited as will be evident from the appended claims.

Heretofore great difficulty has been experienced in accurately and uniformly feeding cartridges to guns, particularly in belt feed guns and other rapid fire guns, and as a consequence many jams, misfires, and failures to fire, with attendant delay and confusion, have resulted. Moreover, frequent breakages have resulted from malaction as a result of making the feeding mechanism positive and inflexible. And in the case of belt feeds constant troubles are encountered owing to the stretching or shrinking of the belts and to the irregular spacing and positioning of the cartridges along the belt.

The objects of the present invention are to overcome the aforesaid difliculties, to afford accurate and uniform feeding of eartridges in rapid fire and other guns, to eliminate jams, misfires, and other malfunctioning, to minimize breakages, to compensate for irregularities in the spacing and positioning of cartridges, and generally to improve the operation of guns, all with particular reference to automatic rapid-fire guns employing belt feed.

In one aspect the present invention involves a method and means for controlling the rate of firing in an automatic gun in response to the rate of feeding cartridges to the gun so that the gun can be made to fire slower or faster by decreasing or increasing the rate of cartridge feed. For example, when employing a belt feed the rate of firing may be controlled in response to the rate at which the belt is fed through the gun, i. e., either directly through or alongside the gun so as to deliver cartridges to the gun. The belt may be fed through the gun manually or automatically, in various ways,'but assuming it is pulled through by hand, the rate of firing may be controlled solely by the rate at which the belt is pulled. Upon stopping the belt the gun stops firing and upon again pulling the belt the firing resumes.

The aforesaid action is accomplished by providing automatic means for restraining the breech closing mechanism from closing, the restraining means being arranged to be actuated by the cartridge feeding means or by the cartridges themselves when they reach a certain position, preferably a position in alinement with the firing chamber or otherwise in position to be inserted into the firing chamber by the breech mechanism in closing, said restraining means being arranged to restrain the breech mechanism from closing until a cartridge has been delivered into position.

In another aspect the invention involves yielding means for successively feeding cartridges into said position (as opposed to positive feeding means heretofore used), to-

gether with said restraining means for holding the breech open unless the foremost cartridge'is in said position, the yielding means preferably feeding the cartridges in a belt or other holder. When employing a belt or the like the belt or other part of the breech mechanism is preferably arranged to push the cartridge from the pockets in the belt into the firing chamber without detaching parts of the belt from each other, both strips of the belt preferably leaving the gun from the same side instead of from opposite sides as in prior guns where the strips are pulled or cut apart to free the cartridges.

When the yielding means for feeding the cartridge is made automatic it preferably comprises a spring or other elastic means arranged to be retensioned by the movementof the breech 'mechanism or otherwise in response to a part of the energy of the explosions in the firing chamber. And the breech mechanism and aforesaid restraining means are so correlated as to operate in synchronism by making the operation of the breech mechanism dependent upon the operation of the restraining means. 7

, Furthermore, the aforesaid means for retensioning the spring or other elastic or yielding part of the cartridge feeding mechanism may be arranged to compensate for variations in the amount of tension utilized in the successive advances of the cartridges. In the case of a belt feed, for example, the distance between the cartridges in the belt may be irregular or may change due to stretching or shrinking of the belt, thereby necessitating a greater or lesser advance of the cartridge belt in successively positioning the cartridges, the variations in the amount of tension required to advance the cartridges at the successive times may be automatically compensated for each time the elastic means is retensioned, so that the elastic means is retensioned to the same effective or maximum degree each time irrespective of the amount of tension utilized in the preceding advance of the belt and so that the variations in amount of tension utilized are not cumulative. Preferably, this compensation is effected during the closing movement of the breech closure and the retensio-ning during the opening movement, the cartridges being advanced while the breech closure is open or at least during the rearward portion of its opening and closing movement. The compensation is also preferably characterized in that after the cartridges have been advanced each time the elastic means is unwound an amount inversely proportional to the amount of tension utilized in the preceding advance of the cartridges, the retensioning means preferably comprising a loose coupling or other lost-motion device and a ratchet or the like associated with the bolt so that when the closure is ,open the spring unwinds to advance the belt an amount sufiicient to take up only apart of the lost-motion, and when the closure closes the rest of said lost-motion is first taken up and the ratchet then ratcheted backwardly, and when the closure opens the elastic means is tensioned and all (2'. e. the original amount) of the lost-motion is restored.

More specific aspects of the invention will be apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, in which,

Figure l is a top plan of one embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 2 is a right side elevation of the same embodiment;

Fig. 3 is an enlarged left side elevation of the embodiment, parts being broken away or sectioned;

Fig. 4 is a section online 44 of Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is a section on line 55 of'Fig. 3;

' Fig. 6 is a section on line 66 of Fig. 3;

Fig. 7 is a section on line 77 of Fig. 3;

Fig. 8 is a bottom/ plan with the magazine and frame, which carries the rear grip and trigger mechanism, removed;

Fig. 9 is an exposed view of the cartridge feeding mechanism as seen from below;

Fig. 10 is a view from line 1010 of Fig. 13 is a perspective view of the breech restraining means or bolt stop;

Fig. 14 is an enlarged section on 14-14 of Fig. 2;

Fig. 15 is an enlarged section on 15-15 of Fig. 2;

Fig. 16 is an enlarged section on 16.16 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 17 is a section on line 1717 of Fig. 16; and

Fig, 18 is a perspective view of a ratchet member of the cartridge feeding mechanism.

The particular embodiment of the invention disclosed for the purpose of illustration, comprises in general a receiver R, a frame F disposed beneath the receiver, a barrel D extending forwardly from the receiver, a cooling tube C surrounding the barrel, a magazine M detachably connected with the frame F, a rear gri G mounted on the frame F, a fore grip secured to the forward end of the receiver and disposed beneath the barrel, and breech mechanism and cartridge feeding mechanism hereinafter described.

The receiver is of the general shape illustrated in the drawings, being open at the rear and on the bottom and having an ejection opening p on its upper side near its forward end. The frame F is shaped to fit into and fully cover the open bottom and open rearward end of the receiver. The frame and receiver are provided with three sets of interlocking lugs 1, 2 and 3, adapted to hold the frame in position on the receiver.

The breech mechanism comp-rises a bolt B having a forwardly extending portion B and a rearwardly extending portion B. The central body portion of bolt B is provided with oblique guideways on opposite sides throughwhich a U-shaped lock L is adapted to slide, the U-shaped lock occupying an inverted position, as illustrated most clearly in Figs. 3 and 8, and having lugs Z disposed in guideways in the opposite sides of the receiver, the lugs and corresponding guideways having an obliquity sufficiently greater than the obliquity of the guideways line line

line

on the bolt to cause the lock to hold the bolt in closed position during high breech pres sure and to cause the bolt to move into unlocked position directly in response to the breech pressure when the pressure has decreased to a safe value as disclosed in the patents to Blish 1,131,319, March 9, 1919, Graham 1,340,891, May 25, 1920, Eickhofi et al., 1,340,943, May 25, 1920, Payne 1,363,809, December 28, 1920.

The rearward extending portion B of the bolt is provided with lateral guides adapted to slide in guideways 8 formed in opposite sides of the receiver -(Figs. 3, 4 and 8). Disposed between the body portion B of the bolt and the rear end of the frame is a recoil spring 8 which fits over the pin 0 extending inwardly from the rear end of the frame F and which butts at its forward end against the rear end of a plunger b. The plunger is connected to the lock L by means of a link A, the lock Land the plunger '1') both being bifurcated to receive the link A and being pivoted thereto by means of pins a. and P.- A tube 9 formed as an integral part of the bolt, surrounds the recoil spring 8 and forms a guide therefor. A buifer H is arranged to take up excess recoil of the bolt, this buffer being held forward by the buffer spring S. The buffer H is provided with a vertical portion 10, adapted to be engaged by'the rear face of the body portion of the bolt in the event that the bolt is retracted a distance greater than the normal amount for which the recoil spring is adapted. The buffer H slides in the upper portion of the receiver and when in its forward position, the lug 11 on the top thereof stops against the forward end of the groove 12' in the top of the receiver. The forward end of the bolt B has ejector slots 6 disposed longitudinally on opposite sides thereof to receive the noses ofthe ejector hereinafter described.

To secure the frameF in position on the receiver R the frame is placed in approximate position and then-moved forwardly, compressing buffer spring S, until the lugs 1, 2 and 3 on the frame move forwardly underneath and beyond the corresponding lugs on the receiver, whereupon the frame is pressed upwardly and permitted to be pressed rearwardly by buffer spring S until the frame seats in the position shown in Fig. 1 with the frame lugs resting on the receiver lugs and the rear end of the frame bearing against the internal shoulder at the rear end of the receiver.

Above the portion Bis mounted the extractor E, the extractor being pivotally mounted-on the pin 9 in the bifurcated extension 12 of the bolt B. The spring h is connected at its rearward end. to the extractor E and at its forward end engages under overhanging shoulders on the bifurcated its free ends and with vertical grooves 7 immediately in front of the noses 5. As

shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 7, the U-shaped ejector is arranged to fit around the bottom of the receiver immediately in advance of the magazine, recesses being formed in the outer walls of the receiver to receive the ejector and tongues 4 being formed in the recesses to extend into the grooves 7 in the ejector to prevent the ejector from being displaced. The noses 5 of the ejector extend inwardly through slots 15 (Fig. 3) in the receiver in alinement with the slots 6 in the forward portion B of the bolt.

The firing pin f is disposed in an opening extending longitudinally through the bolt and sloping downwardly to the rear. A hammer O is mounted in the frame F to strike the rear end of the'firing pin upon pulling the trigger when the bolt B is in forward position, the hammer being normally held retracted by means .of the sear K and passing upwardly through an opening 13 in the portion B" of the bolt to engage the firing'pin when released. When the bolt recoils it ridesover the hammer and returns it to retracted position. A safety catch N is provided to lock the firing mechanism in safe position. Inasmuch as the firing mechanism is not-claimed in the present application further description thereof is omitted.

A cardinal feature of the invention comprises the means for preventing the bolt or breech closure from being advanced until the cartridge to be fed to the firing chamber isin proper position in advance of the bolt. As illustrated in the drawings this means comprises a bolt stop I having two L-shaped sides joined together at their forward end by a web 2' and being unconnected at their rearwardend. The bolt stop I is pivotally mounted in the receiver by means of trunnions j extending outwardly from the L-shaped sides into pivot openings in the walls of the receiver. In order to facilitate the insertion of the bolt stop in the receiver,

grooves 9 (Fig. 8) extend upwardly from the bottom of the side walls of the receiver to the pivot openings for the trunnions, the

trunnions 7' being adapted to slide along the grooves and then snap outwardl into the trunnion openings due to the resiliency of the bifurcated bolt stop. The rear end of the bolt stop is provided with a pair of lugs 2 adapted to engage the bottom of the bolt B when the bolt stop is in position shown in Fig. 3, thereby holding the bolt in retracted position. The bolt stop is urged into this position by means of a coil compression spring n set into a vertical recess in the frame F and engaging the under side of the rear-end of one of the L-shaped sides of the bolt stop. The bolt stop is provided with a manual actuator 0, extending outwardly through an opening in the righthand side (Figs. 2 and 8), by means of which the bolt stop may be operated by hand when desired.

The web 2' at the forward end of the bolt stop is disposed in front of the forward portion B of the bolt when the bolt stop is in the position shown in Fig. 3, in which position the web is adapted to be engaged on its under side by a cartridge when the cartridge is fed into position in advance of the bolt to be fed to the firing chamber. As the cartridge is moved into position in advance of the bolt, thereby pressing upwardly on the web 2', the bolt stop is rotated in a clockwise direction until the web 2' comes into alinement with the space 14 and until the lugs z disengage the body of the bolt. The bolt is then permitted to be advanced by the recoil spring 8, thereby feeding the cartridge into the firing chamber. Thus upon each retraction of the bolt it is. automatically retained in retracted position by the bolt stop I until the new cartridge has been moved into position in advance of the bolt to be fed into the firing chamber, whereupon the bolt is automatically released and allowed to plunge forward. This avoids jams and other difliculties incident to guns in which the bolt may be advanced when the new cartridge is not in proper position to be advanced into the firing chamber.

The preferred means for feeding cartridges into position in front of the bolt to be advanced into the firing chamber is as follows:

The magazine M is so shaped as to have a belt of cartridges folded back and forth transversely therein as indicated in Fig. 15. The belt may be constructed in various ways,

either of metal or canvas or other suitable material, but it preferably comprises two strips of canvas stitched together at intervals to form transverse pockets adapted to receive the cartridges. The magazine is provided near its mouth with a roller m pivoted on a shaft extending into the walls of the magazine. The magazine is so constructed that it may be loaded at the factory or arsenal, being sealed if desired, and then inserted into the gun at the place of firing without any preliminary preparation other than the removal of the seal if such is provided. The end of the cartridge belt may be extended outwardly over the roller m and hooked over a catch 16 on the outside of the magazine. The roller M is preferably made of rubber, although it may be made of wood or other material. The magazine is adapted to be held in place on the frame F by means of a suitable catch 7:. lVh'en the magazine is inserted into the gun the parts occupy their relative positions as shown in Fig. 3. In this position the roller m is separated from the bottom of one side of the receiver by a space just sufficient to permit the cartridge belt'to pass theret-hrough. Upon disengagingthe end of the belt from the hook 16 and pulling on the belt, the foremost cartridge in the belt is brought forward into position in advance of portion B of the bolt and lifts the web 2' of the bolt stop upwardly, thereby releasing the bolt. Upon release of the bolt, the portion B of the bolt is projected through the pocket in the belt occupied by the foremost cartridge thereby feeding the cartridge to the firing chamber. Upon firing the cartridge the lock L automatically unlocks the bolt from the receiver after the breech pressure has dropped to a safe value, according to the principle disclosed in the aforesaid pat- .ents, and the bolt is retracted by the residual breech pressure. The bolt is retained in retracted position by the bolt stop I until the belt has been advanced a sufficient distance to bring the next cartridge into position to lift the bolt stop as above described. Thus the action of the gun can be controlled merely by pulling on the free end of the cartridge belt. The cartridge belt may be advanced in various ways but it is preferably advanced automatically in response to the reciprocation of the bolt as hereinafter described.

The operation of the extractor mechanism is as follows: when the bolt is in retracted position as shown in Fig. 3, the forward end of the extractor E is lifted due to the roller 6 riding upon the cam plate (1. This permits the extractor to move over the upper web of the belt upon the advance of the bolt. After the forward end of the extractor has passed over the upper web of the belt the roller 6 leaves the cam plate and the forward end of the extractor moves downwardly into position to engage the rim of the cartridge. Upon retraction of the bolt the extractor withdraws the empty carinvention is unique means for automatically advancing the cartridge belt which, in the ratchet teeth in their butting ends.

particular embodiment herein disclosed, comprises a toothed drum Y rotatably mounted on a shaft V on the right-hand side of the receiver in juxtaposition to the magazine roller m, the drum Y being provided with teeth adapted to engage the cartridge belt and advance the belt when the drum is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction. The opposite ends of the shaft V are j ournaled in brackets W and VV' slidably fitted into dovetail guideways in the righthand side of the receiver, the bracket W being held in place by an abutment at the. end of its guideway and the bracket W being held in place by the plunger y illustrated in Fig. 17 The shaft V is arranged to be rotated by means of a worm wheel fixedly mounted on the rearward end thereof. The worm wheel U meshes with the worm rack Q, slidable along the right-hand side of the receiver and connected with the bolt by the pin P (Figs. 3 and 6) an'actuator 21 is integrally formed of the rearward end of the rack Q by means of which the rack and bolt may be normally retracted. Rotatably mounted on the shaft V intermediate the worm wheel U and drum Y are two members t and it having intermeshing' The member If is positively connected to the shaft V through a lost-motion connection comprising dogs 18 and 19 disposed on the abutting ends of the ratchet t and'the collar of worm wheel U. The dogs 18 and 19 are respectively of only approximately 90 angular extent so that there is approximately 180 lost-motion between ratchet member t and shaft V. The ratchet member to is provided with three projections adapted to extend into longitudinal openings in the drum Y to connect the parts non-rotatably together. The ratchet teeth of members t and u areso inclined that member t will drive member u when rotated-in a clockwise direction and will slide over the teeth on member u when rotated in a counter-clockwise direction. Another set o-f ratchet members 1) and 00 are provided at the forward end of the drum Y, the member as being fixedly mounted on the bracket W, and the member '0 being rotatable on shaft and having projections extending into said longitudinal openin s in drum Y. Springs w in said longitudinal openings in drum Y, urge members a and '2) into engagement with members 13 and m respectively. The teeth of members 1; and m are so inclined that the member i1 will rotate in a counter- V dog ward stroke of the clockwise direction but not in a clockwise direction. A torsion spring 1' is disposed around the hubs of the worm wheel U and the ratchet member t'with its opposite ends anchored in these parts respectively. The spring '1' is so torsioned as to tend to rotate the ratchet member t and therefore the drum Y in a counter-clockwise direction. The feeding mechanism is inclosed in a sheet metal casing X extending between the brackets W and W. The lower forward portion of the casing 00 is provided with inturned fingers 20 adapted to strip the belt from the drum Y in the event the belt tends to stick to the teeth of the drum.

When the bolt is advanced the rack Q rotates the worm wheel U in a clockwise direction, thereby first taking up the lost motion between dogs 18 and 19 and then ratcheting the member If backwardly over ratchet u. During this ratcheting the drum Y is restrained from backing up by ratchets u and :10. When the bolt is retracted the rack Q, rotates worm wheel U in a counterclockwise direction, thereby winding up spring 1' and carrying the dog 19 in a counter-clockwise direction away from dog 18, ratchet t being held stationary by the cartridge belt acting through drum Y and ratchet a. After the bolt is retracted sufficiently to release the belt the drum Y is advanced in a counter-clockwise direction by the spring 1", until a new cartridge is brought into position. During the advance of the drum the dog 18 advances in a counter-clockwise direction, tending to catch up with the dog 19 which was advanced away from the dog 18 on the rearward movement of the bolt. However, the pitch of the worm rack and worm wheel is such that the dog 19 is advanced farther on the recoil of the bolt than is the dog 18 on the advance of the drum. Consequently the dog 18 does not catch up with dog 19 on the advance of the drum but leaves a certain amount of lost motion between the twodogs after the drum has been fully advanced. The amount of this lost motion varies dependlng upon the elasticity of the belt, the distance between cartridges, slippage of the belt on the drum, etc., and in this way these variable factors are automatically compensated as will now be explained more fully.

The worm wheel U is oscillated back and forth through the same are as the bolt advance's and retracts and consequently the 19 on worm wheel U oscillates back and forth through a constant are. The spring 1' is torsionedv during the entire rearbolt to a definite predetermined degree. When the drum is advanced only a part of this torsion is utilized, dependin upon theaforesaid variable factors, leavmg motion between lugs 18' and 19 proportional to the balance of the torsion. When the bolt advances this lost motion is taken up, thereby dissipating the balance of the torsion, and the ratchet t is thenratcheted over ratchet it until the bolt reaches forward position. The ratchet t is then held by ratchet to during the recoil of the bolt, during which period spring 1" is again torsioned to said same predetermined degree. Instead of causing said spring to alternate between zero torsion and said predetermined degree it may be and preferably is caused to alternate between two predetermined de rees by giving it an initial torsion in assembling the mechanism. Thus variations in the amount of tension utilized in recurrently advancing the drum are not cumulative but are compensated for each time in winding the spring so that the spring is always tension to the same degree at the moment it becomes operative upon the drum.

From the foregoing it will be evident that the bolt stop is controlled directly by the foremost cartridge and, in view of the fact that the cartridges are actuated by the cartridge feeding means, it will also be'evident that the bolt stop is also controlled by the feeding means through the medium of the cartridges.

I claim:

1. A gun comprising a fixed barrel having a firing chamber, a breech closure movable to and from the firing chamber, means for feeding cartridges into position immediately in the rear of the mouth of the firing chamber to be fed into the firing chamber when the breech closure is advanced, and means at said position responsive to the feeding of the cartridges for controlling the movement of said breech closure.

2. A gun comprising automatic breech mechanism, means whereby a cartridge holder ma be fed through the gun to deliver cartri ges thereto, and means responsive to the rate of cartridge feed to control the rate of firing.

3. A gun comprising automatic breech mechanism, means whereby a cartridge belt may be pulled through the gun to deliver cartridges thereto, and means responsiveto the rate at which said belt is pulled to control the rate of firing.

4. The method of controlling the action of an automatic gun which comprises feeding cartridges to the gun and controlling the rate of firing by regulating the rate of-cartridge feed. 7

' 5. The method of controlling the action of an automatic gun using a cartridge belt comprising pulling the belt through the gun and controlling the rate of firing by regulating the rate at which the belt is pulled.

6. A gun comprislng a fixed barrel having a firing chamber, a breech closure movable to .and from the firing chamber, a cartridge holder for carrying cartridges along a path leading transversely of the barrel to a position immediately in the rear of the firing chamber from whence they may be advanced by the breech closure forwardly into the firing chamber, and means for automatically restraining said breech closure from closing unless a cartridge is in said position.

"7. A gun comprising a firing chamber, breech closing mechanism, means for feeding cartridges into position to be inserted into the firing chamber by said mechanism, and means controlled by said feeding means for automatically restraining said mechanism from closing unless a cartridge is in said position, said first means being timed normally to bring a cartridge to said position before said second means becomes effective to restrain said mechanism.

8. A gun comprising a firing chamber, breech closing mechanism, means for feeding a series of cartridges successively into position to be inserted into the firing chamber by said mechanism, and means for automatically restraining said mechanism from closing each time the breech is opened unless the foremost cartridge of the series is in said position, said first means being timed normally to bring a cartridge to said position before said second means becomes effective to restrainsaid mechanism, whereby the mechanism normally functions independently of said second means.

9. A gun comprising a firing chamber, breech closing mechanism, means for feeding a series of cartridges successively into position to be inserted into the firing chamber by said mechanism, and means for automatically restraining said mechanism from closing each time the breech is open unless the foremost cartridgeof the series is in said position, said restraining means being arranged to be moved out of restrain ng position by the foremost cartridge moving into said position before the breech closure reaches the restraining means. 1 1.

'10, A gun comprising a firing chamber, breech closing mechanism, means for feeding cartridges into a position in advance ofsaid mechanism when open and substantially in alinement with the firing chamber, and means for automatically restraining said mechanism from closing unless a cartridge is in said position, said feeding means being timed normally to bring a cartridge to said position before said restraining means becomes effective to restrain said cartridge is in said position, said feeding means being timed normally to bring a cartridge to said position before said restraining means becomes effective to restrain said mechanism. I

12. A gun comprising a firing chamber, automatic breech closing mechanism, means for feeding a series of cartridges successively into a position in advance of said mechanism means for automatically restraining said mechanism from closing each time the breech is opened unless the foremostcartridge of the series is in said position, said feeding means being timed normally to bring a cartridge to said position before said restraining means becomes effective to restrain said mechanism.

13. A gun comprising a firing chamber, automatic breech closing mechanism, means for feeding a series of cartridges successively into a position in advance of said mechanism when open and substantially in alinement with the firing chamber, and means for automatically restraining said mechanism from closing each time the breech is opened unless the foremost cartridge of the series is in said position, said restraining means comprising a breech closure restraining member adapted to be actuated. directly by the foremost cartridge.

14. A gun comprising a fixed barrel having a firing chamber, breech closing mechanism, means for feeding a series of cartridges successively into position immediately before the mouth of the firing chamber to be inserted into the firing chamber by said mechanism, and means for automatically restraining said mechanism from closing each time the breech is opened unless the foremost cartridge of the series is in said position, said restraining means having a part disposed in the region of said position so as to be actuated'by the foremost cartridge and having another part arranged to engage said mechanism unless said first part is actuated.

15. A gun comprising a firing chamber, breech closing mechanism, means for feeding a series of cartridges successively into position to be inserted into the firing chamber by said mechanism, and means for automatically restraining said mechanism from closing each time the breech is opened unless the foremost cartridge of the series is in said position, said restraining means comprising a movable member arranged to engage and restrain said mechanism, and said member having a part extending into the region of said position so as to be moved out of restraining relation by the foremost cartridge moving into said position.

when open and substantially in alinement with the firing chamber, and- 16. A gun comprising a firing chamber, breech closing mechanism, means for feeding a series of cartridges successively into position to be inserted into the firing chamber by said mechanism, and means for automatically' restraining said mechanism from closing each time the breechis opened unless the foremost cartridge of the series is in said position, said restraining means comprising a member extending between said position and said mechanism, said member being pivoted so as to swing into and out of restraining relation to the mechanism and having a portion arranged to be engaged by the foremost cartridge moving into said position so as to swing the member out of restraining relation to the breech closing mechanism.

17. A gun comprising a firing chamber, breech closing mechanism, means for feeding a series of cartridges successively into position to be inserted into the firing chamber by said mechanism, and means for antomatically restraining said mechanism from closing each time the breech is opened unless the foremost cartridge of the series is in said position, said restraining means having a concave portion adapted to receive the body of the foremost cartridge and stop the cartridge in alinement with the firing chamber.

18. A gun comprising movable breech closure, means for feeding cartridges into position to be inserted into the firing chamber by said closure. and means for automatically restraining said mechanism from closing unless a cartridge is in said position, said restraining means having a pair of arms pivoted along opposite sides of the path of said closure to swing into restraining relation to the closure and having a web extending between said arms in the path of the cartridges in transit to said position, whereby the arms are swung out of said restraining relation by a cartridge moving into said position.

19. A gun comprising a firing chamber, a receiver, a movable breech closure, means for feeding cartridges into position to be inserted into the firing chamber by said closure, a yoke pivotally mounted in said receiver, the yoke having two longitudinal portionsextending longitudinally of the receiver on opposite sides ofthe path of said closure and having a shoulder adapted to engage said closure and hold it open, a web connecting the forward ends of said longitudinal portions of the yoke, said web being disposed in the path of said cartridges, whereby the closure is retained open by said yoke unless a cartridge is fed into said position.

20. A gun comprising a firing chamber, a breech closure, yielding means for successively feeding cartridges into a position in a firing chamber, a

advance of said closure and in alinment with said chamber, and means controlled by the feeding of the cartridges for holding said closure open unless a cartridge is in said position.

21. A gun comprising a firing chamber, a breech closure, yielding means for feeding a cartridge holder through the gun to bring the cartridges successively into a position in advance of said closure and 'in alinement with said chamber, and means controlled by the feeding of the cartridges for holding said closure open unless a cartridge is in said position.

22. A gun comprising a firing chamber, a breech closure, means for feeding a cartridge belt through the gun to bring the cartridges successively into a position in advance of said closure and in alinement with said chamber, and means controlled by the feeding of the cartridges for holding said closure open unless a cartridge is insaid position.

23. A gun comprisinga firing chamber, a breech closure, means for feeding a cartridge belt through the gun to bring the cartridges, while still in the belt, successively into a position in advance of said closure and in alinement with said chamber, and means controlled by the feeding of the cartridges for holding said closure open unless a cartridge is in said position.

24. A gun comprising a firing chamber, a breech closure and means for feeding a cartridge belt through the gun to bring the cartridges successively into position to be inserted into the firing chamber by the breech closure, the belt having parts on opposite sides of the'cartridges attached together, and the breech closure being coordinated with the feeding means to push the cartridges from the belt directly into the firing chamber Without detaching the parts of the belt from each other.

25. A gun comprising a firing chamber, a breech closure, and means for feeding through the gun a cartridge belt having strips extending along opposite sides of the cartridges and attached together between the cartridges so as to form pockets for the cartridges, the breech closure being arranged to push the cartridges from said pockets directly into the firing chamber without detaching said parts from each other.

' 26. A gun adapted to use a cartridge belt having strips extending along opposite sides of the cartridges and attached together between the cartridges so as to form pockets for the cartridges, the gun comprising a firing chamber, means to feed the belt through the gun from one side to the other with both trips leaving the gun on the same side, and with the foremost cartridge substantially in alinement with the firing chamber, and means for feeding cartridges from the belt directly into the firing chamber.

27. A gun adapted to use a cartridge belt, comprising a firing chamber, a breech closure, a member disposed at one side of the path of the breech closure, and means for feeding the belt past said member, said member being positioned to engage the belt thereby to stop the belt in position for the breech closure to advance the foremost cartridge from the 'belt to the firing chamber.

28. A gun adapted to use a cartridge belt, comprising a firing chamber, a breech closure, a roller disposed at one side of the path of the breech closure, and means for feeding the belt over said roller, said roller being positioned to stop the belt in position for the breech closure to advance the foremost cartridge from the belt to the firing chamber.

29. A gun adapted to use a cartridge belt,

comprising a firing chamber, a breech closure, a roller disposed at one side of the path of the breech closure, means for feeding the belt over said roller, said roller being positioned to stop the belt in position for the breech closure to advance the foremost cartridge from the belt to the firing chamber, and means for restraining the breech closure from closing unless a cartridge is in position to be advanced to the firing chamber, said last means having a part arranged on the side of said belt opposite to said member to be actuated when a cartridge is in said position to clear the breech closure.

30. A gun adapted to use a cartridge belt, comprising a firing chamber, a breech closure, 'a roller disposed at one side of the path of the breech closure with its axis par allel to said path, means for feeding the belt over said roller, said means comprising teeth arranged to engage in the belt on the side opposite to said roller, and the roller being relatively soft so that the teeth may indent thereinto.

31. A gun adapted to use a cartridge belt, comprising a firing chamber, a-breech closure, means for yleldingly advancing said belt through the gun, and means engaging the foremost cartridge for recurrently stopping the belt in position for said closure to deliver cartridges therefrom to the firing chamber.

32. A gun adapted to use a cartridge said yielding means to permit the cartridges to befired successively.

34. A gun comprising an automatic breech closure, elastic means for successively feeding cartridges to the gun, and-means actu ated by the automatic closure for retensioning said elastic means, said retensioning means comprising means automatically to compensate for variations in the amount of tension utilized in the successive advances of 'tension utilized in advancing'the belt the preceding time.

36. A gun using a cartridge belt, comprising afiring chamber, a breech closure, means including a spring for pulling the belt into position to deliver a cartridge to the firing chamber each time said closure is opened, means for retensioning said spring on the opening movement of the closure, and means for compensating for, variation in the amount of: tension utilized on the closing movement of the closure.

37. A gun using a cartridge belt, comprising a firing chamber, a breech closure, means including a spring for pulling the belt into position to deliver a cartridge to the firing chamber each time said closure is opened,

means for retensionin' said spring on the opening movement of t e closure, and meansfor unwinding said spring on the closing movement of the closure an amount inversel proportional to the amount of tension utilized in advancing the belt while the bolt is open.

38. A gun comprising a firing chamber, a

- breech closure, elastic means for successively feeding a cartridge into position to be inserted into the firing chamber by said closure each time the closure is opened, and means automatically to retension saidfirst means each time said closure is actuated, said last means including lost-motion mechanism arranged to compensate for variation in the amount of tension utilized in the successive advances of the cartridges.

39. A gun adapted to use a cartridge belt comprising an automatic breech closure, means including a spring for yieldingly advancing the belt each; time said closure is opened, and means including ratchet mechanism to retension said spring each time said closure is actuated, said last means compris-.

ing means to retension said spring to the same effective degree at each actuation of said closure irrespective of the amount of tension utilized in advancing the belt the preceding time.

40. A gun adapted to use a cartridge belt comprising an automatic breech closure, means including a spring for yieldingly advancing the belt each tlme said closure is opened, and means to retension said spring each time said closure is actuated, said last' means including a connection to the closure having lost-motion and ratchet mechanism arranged to compensate for variations in'the amount of tension utilized "in the successive advances of the cartridges.

41. A gun adapted to use a cartridge belt comprising an automatic breech closure, means including a spring for yieldingly advancing the belt each time said closure is 1 opened, and means to retension said spring each time said closure is actuated, said last means comprising a connection to the closure including a ratchet and a lost-motion coupling so arranged that when the closure is open the spring unwinds to advance thebelt an amount suificient. to take up only a part of said lost-motion, and when the closure closes the rest of said lost motion is first taken up and the ratchet then ratchetedbackwardly, and when the closure opens said tion is restored.

42. In a gun adapted to use a belt, mechanism for advancing the belt at recurrent intervals comprising a driving member arranged to oscillate in synchronism with the breech closure, a driven member arranged to advance the belt, an intermediate member kiriematically connected to the driving member through a lost-motion coupling and to the driving member through a ratchet, and a spring kinematically interposed between said driving and intermediate member, the

spring is tensioned and all of the lost mosaid parts being arranged so that when the belt is free to advance the spring rotates the intermediate member in the. forward direc- Signed .by me at Cleveland, Ohio, this 26th I day of November, 1919.

OSCAR .V. PAYNE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2436404 *27 May 194224 Feb 1948Hughes Tool CoAmmunition booster for automatic guns
US2466697 *22 May 194212 Apr 1949Gentry George CFeed mechanism for cartridge belts
US2489428 *21 Feb 194429 Nov 1949United Shoe Machinery CorpMagazine for machine guns
US2546804 *19 Apr 194427 Mar 1951Colt S Mfg CompanyCartridge feeding device for automatic firearms
Classifications
U.S. Classification89/33.16
International ClassificationF41A9/00, F41A9/34
Cooperative ClassificationF41A9/34
European ClassificationF41A9/34