|Publication number||CN104101335 A|
|Application number||CN 201410144257|
|Publication date||15 Oct 2014|
|Filing date||11 Apr 2014|
|Priority date||12 Apr 2013|
|Also published as||CN104101335B, EP2789972A1, EP2789972B1, US9791272, US20140307252|
|Publication number||201410144257.4, CN 104101335 A, CN 104101335A, CN 201410144257, CN-A-104101335, CN104101335 A, CN104101335A, CN201410144257, CN201410144257.4|
|Inventors||J·辛德林, J·舍加, C·L·E·迪穆兰, C·艾斯利|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (1), Classifications (8), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: SIPO, Espacenet|
技术领域 Technical Field
 本发明涉及特别是视距仪、激光扫描器、或激光跟踪器的光学测绘装置以及用于利用光学测绘装置测绘目标物体的方法。  relates in particular horizon, laser scanner, laser tracker or optical mapping apparatus of the present invention and a method for using an optical mapping device mapping of the target object. 测绘装置、利用其测绘目标物体的方法和计算机程序产品 Mapping means for mapping the target object using its methods, and computer program product
 测绘技术的装置基于光学测量系统以各种形式操作。 Device  mapping technology based on optical measurement systems operating in various forms. 根据该类型的测绘装置的示例例如在US6, 873, 407、CN201892533、US2011/080477、EP1081459、US2012/127455、 TO2012/033892、W02007/079600、W02010/148525 或其他专利中公开。 For example, in US6, 873, 407, CN201892533, US2011 / 080477, EP1081459, US2012 / 127455, TO2012 / 033892, W02007 / 079600, W02010 / 148525 or other patent disclosed according to an example of this type of mapping devices.
 通常，光辐射沿待被测绘的目标对像的方向从这些装置被发射，目标对像的距离和角位置，即，极坐标被确定，该极坐标之后通常被进一步处理。  Typically, the optical radiation is to be along the direction of the target image mapping is emitted from these devices, the distance and the angular position of the target image, i.e., polar coordinates are determined, then the polar coordinate is typically further processed. 从待被测绘的目标对像，发射的辐射的分量在这种情况下被反射到装置，在装置中被接收，并且被转变成用于距离确定的电信号。 By mapping from the target to be image, the radiation components emitted in this case is reflected to the apparatus, it is received in the apparatus, and are converted into electrical signals used to determine the distance. 除了测绘自然设置的目标外，特定的目标标记或反射器也能被附接至目标对像，或者例如，能将可动测绘杆用作目标对像。 In addition to the goal of mapping the natural settings, specific target marker or reflector can also be attached to the goals of the like, or, for example, can be used as a target for the movable pole mapping image.
 所发射的光辐射在这里能用于基于运行时间或相位测量原理或这些原理的组合的电光距离测量，如这例如在EP1757956、JP4843128、EP1311873、EP1450128、EP1882959、 EP1043602、W02006/063739或其他专利中被描述。  The optical radiation emitted here can be used for electro-optical distance measurement is based on a combination of running time or phase measurement principle or these principles, such as this example in EP1757956, JP4843128, EP1311873, EP1450128, EP1882959, EP1043602, W02006 / 063739 or Other patents are described.
 所发射的光辐射也能用于目标对像的识别和/或角测绘。  The light emitted radiation can also be used to identify the target of the image and / or the angle of Surveying and Mapping. 例如，目标标记能被实施成在例如呈回射器的形式或者实施成目标对像的视觉特征，例如，对比表面的角部、边缘、边界等，如例如在W02011/141447或EP1791082中所述的。 For example, the target mark can be implemented, for example, to form the retroreflector forms or embodiments as characterized in the visual image of the target, for example, the surface of the corner portions contrast, edges, borders, such as for example, in W02011 / 141447 or as described in EP1791082 a. 脉冲或连续地发射的光辐射能由测绘装置发射以帮助在视野中识别目标。 Pulsed or continuous emission of light radiation emitted by the mapping device to help identify the target in sight. 目标对像在角坐标中的这样的识别和/或测绘能利用装置中的位置-敏感光学接收元件(例如，利用CCD或CMOS技术中的平面传感器、 基于横向光电效应的PSD或者一个或多个光感受器的布置(例如光电二极管、双电池、积分二极管）等）来执行。 Target identification such as in angular coordinates and / or mapping devices can take advantage of the position - sensitive optical receiver element (for example, using a CCD or CMOS sensor technology in the plane, based on the photoelectric effect of lateral PSD or one or more photoreceptors arrangement (such as a photodiode, dual battery, integral diodes), etc.) to implement.
 对于角确定，测绘装置通常配备有一个或多个测角器或测角仪，借助测角器，装置或其部分能为了瞄准而旋转，并且这里能确定角位置。  For Angle, mapping devices are usually equipped with one or more of goniometer or goniometer, with the goniometer device or a portion thereof can rotate to aim, and the angular position can be determined here. 目标的角测绘能利用测角器分析通过利用装置的目标轴线精确瞄准目标对像来执行。 Analyzed by means of the use of precise targeting target axis angle mapping target can use a goniometer to like to perform. 然而，尤其在用于此目的的合适的协作目标的情况下，目标对像的不精确的瞄准也能利用测角器在装置的光电子角测量单元(ATR)的视野内来执行。 However, especially in the case of a suitable target for this purpose cooperative, imprecise targeting of images can be use in the goniometer photoelectron angular field of view measuring unit of the device (ATR) to perform. 通过确定在视野内距理想瞄准的偏差，测角器的测量值随后由该偏差来校正。 By determining the deviation from the ideal aim of the field of vision, measurement goniometer is then made to correct the deviation. 这样的方法例如在JP3748112或GB2353862中被描述。 Such methods are described for example in GB2353862 JP3748112 or in. 在测绘装置中，绕测角器的旋转轴线的运动能手动地和/或以机动方式来执行。 In the mapping device, the motion around the goniometer axis of rotation can be manually and / or motorized way to execute.
 对于距离和/或角确定，能使用由装置发射的各自分离的辐射或共用辐射。  For distance and / or angle is determined, can use their own separate radiation emitted by the device or shared radiation.
 已知在测距仪中，所发射的测量光束的发散从用于协作反射器目标的宽发射角朝向用于无反射器测量的校准测量光束的转换能被应用于目标对像的自然表面。  In the known measuring beam divergence rangefinder, a wide emitted from the target reflector for collaboration emission angle toward the non-reflection measurements for calibration of the measuring beam can be applied to the conversion of the target image natural surface. 例如，这能通过使透镜枢转到光束路径或其他具有相同结果的光学装置中来执行。 For example, it is pivoted by the beam path of the lens or other optical device having the same results in the execution. 文献US2012/0224164公开了一种光学距离测量装置，在该光学距离测量装置中，能够执行发射的测量辐射的横截面面积的转换。 Document US2012 / 0224164 discloses an optical distance measuring device, the optical distance measuring device, it is possible to perform measurements of radiation emitted by the cross-sectional area of the conversion. 在其中一个实施方式中，具有能被转换的焦距的液体透镜用于光束宽度转换。 In one embodiment, the liquid lens having a focal length that can be converted for converting the beam width.
 除了上述测量光学系统外，用于操作的使用者或用于测量的文件的目标对像的可见图像的照相机记录也能在测绘装置中被执行。  In addition to the above-mentioned measurement optical system, the operation of the target file for the user or for measuring the visible image on the image recording of the camera can be performed in the mapping means. 借助于电子图像处理，能执行如下功能，诸如：边缘识别、目标识别、特征提取、预定测量程序的自动执行、触屏操作、远程操作、活动图像传输、记录等。 By means of electronic image processing, to perform the following functions, such as: edge recognition, object recognition, feature extraction, automatic execution of predefined measurement program, touch-screen operation, remote operation, moving image transmission, recording and so on. 除了这些用于使用者的图像记录的电子装置外，也能设置传统的可见透射光通道以用于观察被瞄准的目标对像。 In addition to these electronic devices for recording the user's image, but also to set up a conventional visible light transmission path for observation targeted goals like.
 所谓的RM (范围成像模块）也是已知的，该R頂执行具有关联的距离信息的项目的多个像素的识别，即，呈点云形式的三维目标对像识别。  The so-called RM (range imaging module) is also known, identifying a plurality of pixels of the top R execution distance information with associated projects, that is, was the point cloud in the form of three-dimensional objects for image recognition. 这种识别的一示例例如在EP1684084中被描述。 One example of such a recognition, for example, is described in EP1684084 in. 可获得的距离和角分辨率以及还有可获得的精度在许多情况下是不足的，然而，尤其对于精密测量，例如，在大地测量学应用中。 Distance and angular resolution and accuracy available also available in many cases, are insufficient, however, especially for precision measurement, for example, in geodesy applications.
 在大地测量学中，作为本发明的频繁应用领域，在角确定以及在距离确定中需要高水平的测量精度。  In geodesy, as frequent applications of the present invention, determining the angle and distance to determine the need for a high level of accuracy. 例如，在土地测绘领域中，使用具有几毫米或者还小于1_的距离测量精度的视距仪或总站仪。 For example, in the field of land surveying and mapping, having a few millimeters or also less than 1_ distance measurement accuracy of stadia or terminal device. 分别要求在反射器测量的情况下的几千米或者在无反射器测量的情况下的几百米的测量范围。 It is requested in the case of the reflector measured several kilometers or in case of no reflector measuring a few hundred meters of the measurement range. 角测量的精度通常在小于2至10弧秒的范围内，优选地为1 弧秒、0.5弧秒或更小。 The range of angle measurement accuracy is generally less than 2-10 arc seconds, preferably 1 arcsec 0.5 arcsec or less. 通过以下事实使这些要求更困难，S卩，这样的测绘装置常常用于具有强烈变化的环境条件(诸如温度、环境湿度等）的粗糙环境中。 By the fact that these requirements are more difficult, S Jie, such devices are often used for mapping a strong changing environmental conditions (such as temperature, humidity, etc.) in a rough environment.
 为了获得所要求的高水平的精度，装置生产中的高精度是必须的，尤其在光程中的部件的对准中。  In order to achieve the required high level of accuracy, precision production apparatus is necessary, especially in the alignment member in the optical path.
 一个重要的标准由目标线的对准的精度和稳定性来表示，尤其测距仪的目标线或者自动目标方向测量装置（ATR)的目标线相对于瞄准单元的目标轴线的对准。  An important criteria for the alignment accuracy and stability of the target line to represent, especially the goal line or automatic rangefinder target direction measuring device (ATR) relative to the target line aimed at the target axis alignment unit .
 然而，装置内部中的光程还由于越来越多的功能结合到测绘装置中而变得越来越复杂。  However, in the light path inside the apparatus further as more and more functions become more complex bound to the mapping device. 测绘装置可以具有例如用于距离测量的光束路径，可见导向光束、自动目标识别、自动目标对准、透明观察、概览照相机、图像放大功能、图像记录、目标照明、光学数据通信、内部引用部分等。 Mapping device may have, for example for distance measurement beam path, visible guide beam, automatic target recognition, automatic targeting, transparent viewing, overview cameras, image zoom function, image recording, target illumination, optical data communication, internal reference section, etc. . 不仅因所需的高数量的光学部件使装置设计困难，而且，所有分别参与的部件相对于彼此的对准(待在生产期间进行)经证明是更困难且更复杂。 Not only because of the high number of required optical components of the apparatus design difficult, and all are involved in the alignment member with respect to one another (stay during production) proved to be more difficult and more complicated. 概率还随着部件的数量而增大，这些部件中的一个部件能受内部或外部影响而失准，并且因此装置损失精度。 Probability also increases with the number of parts, one part of these components can be internal or external influences by misalignment, and thus means the loss of precision.
 附加的特别是可动的部件结合到测绘装置中会有害于其测量精度和稳定性，因为这将探寻光束路径的简化、部件数量的减少并且避免诸如镜扫描仪的可动部件。  Additional particularly moving parts incorporated into the mapping device will be prejudicial to their measurement accuracy and stability, which would seek to simplify the beam path, reducing the number of parts and avoid problems such as mirror scanner moving parts.
 因此本发明的目的在于改进利用测绘装置的测量。  is therefore an object of the present invention is to improve the use of the mapping device measurements.
 该目的的一部分在于改进现有技术中已知的测量方法并且使其自动化，并且还在于向使用者提供新颖的测量功能。  a portion of the object is to improve the prior art and known measurement methods automate, and further characterized by the user to provide a novel measurement function.
 测绘装置的对准保持并且因此测量精度的改进是该目的的另一部分。 Alignment  to maintain the mapping device and therefore the measurement accuracy improvement is another part of the purpose.
 还有一个目的在于简化测绘装置的构造，或者，换言之，在于提供一种能更简单且成本有效地执行的测绘装置，即，该测绘装置具有例如较低的部件和安装花费，而这没有限制可获得的测量精度。  Still another object is to simplify the structure of the mapping means, or, in other words, to provide a mapping means more simple and cost effective implementation, i.e., for example, the mapping means having a mounting member and a lower cost, while This does not limit the available measurement accuracy.
 一个部分目的也在于提供一种能以高度集成形式生产并且具有最少可能部件，尤其尽可能少的可移动和/或待以高精度对准的部件的测绘装置。  A part of the goal is also to provide a production of highly integrated form and has the fewest possible components, in particular the mapping device can move as little as possible and / or to be aligned with high precision parts.
 一个目的在于也在安装装置期间更简单地构造对准或者避免在装置的生产和/ 或校准期间光学元件的精确对准的必要性。  Also an object of the installation is to be constructed more simply align or to avoid the need for precise alignment of the production and / or during the calibration of the optical elements in the apparatus during the apparatus.
 另一个目的在于在使用测绘装置期间向使用者提供这样的可能性，S卩，允许分配给在位置上，即，还在例如视野中的测绘装置的测量单元的目标线的精确对准，以校正偏差，所述偏差在两位置测量的范围内物理地且不仅单独在数字上确定。  Another object is to provide the mapping device during use of the possibility to the user, S Jie, allows precise assigned to the position, that is, for example, is still the target line measuring unit in the Vision mapping device accurate, to correct the deviation, the deviation in the two position measurement range and not only physically separately determined numerically.
 -个部分目的还在于获得在角和/或距离测量期间测量目标的瞄准的改进或简化。  - a section also aims to obtain measurements in the target and / or during the angular distance measurements aimed at improved or simplified.
 本发明的目的尤其在于在一个测绘装置中共同地实现上述目的。  The object of the present invention is particularly in a mapping device that collectively achieve the above purpose.
 根据本发明的光学测绘装置在此后例如被描述为视距仪、激光扫描器、激光跟踪器、总站等。  The optical mapping apparatus according to the invention are described in the next example, to line of sight, laser scanners, laser trackers, terminus. 所述装置具有用于设立或放置该测绘装置的基部以及瞄准单元，该瞄准单元能相对于所述基部绕两个轴线旋转，这两个轴线设置有测角器。 The device has a base for the establishment or placement targeting unit and the mapping device, which is aimed at the unit relative to the base about two axis, two axis goniometer is provided. 所述瞄准单元限定用于瞄准待被测绘的目标对像的目标轴线(或分别为目标对像上的测量点)，该目标轴线能绕所述两个轴线旋转。 The aiming unit defines a mapping target is aiming to be the axis of the target image (or measuring points were on target for the image), the target axis can be about the two axes of rotation. 所述瞄准单元具有用于沿待被测绘的所述目标对像的方向，特别是在极坐标中用于发射光辐射的第一光束路径，以及用于通过光电子接收元件接收从所述目标对像被反射的所述光辐射的分量的第二光束路径。 Means for having the aiming direction to be along the target image to be mapping, in particular a first beam path for emitting light radiation in polar coordinates, and a receiving element for receiving from the target by photoelectrons of Like the reflected light component of the second radiation beam path.
 根据本发明，所述光束路径中的至少一个路径具有光学元件，该光学元件被设计为具有光学透明的可变形容积主体，该容积主体具有至少一个朝向具有偏离所述容积主体的光学折射率的介质的界面。  According to the present invention, the beam path of the at least one path having an optical element, the optical element is designed to be deformable optically transparent body having a volume, the volume of the body having at least one optical deviates toward said volume body having The refractive index of the medium interface.
 所述界面能借助于多个电激活信号变形，使得因此所述元件的光学折射特性在至少两个非一致方向上不同地变化。  The interface can be deformed by means of a plurality of electrical activation signal, so therefore the refractive properties of the optical element varies in different non-uniform in at least two directions.
 特别是，所述方向至少大约正交于所述光学元件的光学轴线。  In particular, at least approximately orthogonal to the direction of the optical axis of the optical element. 在一个实施方式中， 所述光学元件能被实施为液体透镜，并且所述可变形容积主体能由液体形成并且该容积主体的界面能借助于电激活信号变形。 In one embodiment, the optical element can be implemented as a liquid lens, and the volume of the deformable body can be formed by the liquid and the volume of the body by means of electrical activation signal interface can deform.
 特别是，所述光束路径中的至少一个路径具有例如呈液体透镜形式的光学元件， 该光学元件被实施为具有光学透明液体的元件，该元件具有至少一个朝向具有偏离液体的光学折射率的介质的界面。  In particular, the beam path of the at least one path having a form such as a liquid lens of the optical element, the optical element having an optical element is implemented as a transparent liquid, which faces at least one optical element having a liquid having a refractive departing media interface rate. 所述界面能借助于多个电激活信号变形，使得所述元件的光学折射特性因此在至少两个非一致的方向上不同地变化。 The interface can be deformed by means of a plurality of electrical activation signal, such that the optical properties of the refractive element is changed thus different non-uniform in at least two directions.
 特别是，所述界面能变形，使得所述元件的光学折射特性因此在三维空间中可变， 艮P，在纵向上以及在横向于光束方向的两个方向上可变。  In particular, the interface can be deformed, so that the optical refractive properties of the elements and therefore variable in three-dimensional space, Gen P, in the longitudinal direction and variable in both direction transverse to the beam direction. 在一种情况下，所述界面的曲率能可变地设定，因为透镜被均匀地激活。 In one case, the curvature of the interface can be variably set, because the lens is uniformly activated. 在另一情况下，所述界面的曲率在至少两个非一致的方向上不同地变化。 In another case, the curvature of the interface in at least two different non-uniform direction changes. 在另外的情况下，曲率中心在至少两个非一致的方向上不同地移位。 In other cases, the center of curvature in the direction of at least two different non-uniform displaced.
 随着激励器的(例如，呈激活致动器或电极的形式）数量，能在液体透镜上进行的可执行的设定可能性的数量也增加，并且因此，穿过透镜的光束的光学波前的影响程度和变化也增大。  With the actuator (e.g., actuator activated form or in the form of electrodes), number of the liquid lens can be set executable possibility increases, and therefore, the light beam passing through the lens and change the degree of influence of the optical wavefront is also increased. 偏离预定球或平面的波前部件是特别关心的。 Deviates from a predetermined ball or plane wavefront components is of particular concern. 常常被称为波像差的这样的偏差能例如被表示为泽尔尼克多项式（Zernike polynomials)的级数展开。 Such a deviation is often called wavefront aberration can for example be expressed as Zernike polynomial (Zernike polynomials) series expansion. 分别分配给多项式的级数展开的系数提供关于相应的影响的强度的信息。 Series are assigned to the coefficients of the polynomial expansion to provide a corresponding impact on the strength of information. 通过电极的合适的电激活，系数还能随后在固定地安装在装置中的液体透镜的情况下根据本发明选择性地变化。 Suitable activated electrode by, in the case where the coefficient can then fixedly mounted in the device according to the change in the liquid lens of the present invention selectively.
 在最简单的情况下，借助于电激活，例如，影响焦点的用于多项式的系数或者导致用于横向光束偏转的楔效应的那些系数被改变。  In the simplest case, by means of electrically activated, for example, influence the focus of the polynomial coefficients for those coefficients or cause lateral deflection of the beam for a wedge effect is changed. 焦点变化可设定在例如从_40dpt到+50dpt的范围内，并且光束偏转可通过楔效应例如设定在+/-5〇的范围内。 Focus change can be set in the range from + _40dpt to 50dpt example, and the beam can be deflected by the wedge effect, for example in the range of +/- 5〇. 液体透镜的上述调节范围能借助于在该液体透镜的上游和/或下游连接的附加的光学系统面根据需要适当地改变比例。 The adjusting range of the liquid lens can be changed by means of the ratio of the upstream liquid lens and / or an additional optical system according to the downstream connection surfaces need to be properly.
 分配给楔效应的横向方向至少大约位于液体透镜的元件平面中，S卩，换言之位于至少大约正交于液体透镜的光学轴线的平面中(在非激活状态下)。 Planar optical axis of the optical device plane  assigned to the transverse direction of the wedge effect of the liquid lens is located at least approximately in, S Jie, in other words at least approximately orthogonal to the liquid located in the lens (the inactive state). 这些方向能尤其将透镜主体的主轴横截面分成至少大约相等尺寸的段。 These can be in particular the direction of the main shaft of the cross-section of the lens body into at least sections of approximately equal size.
 第一和/或第二光束路径能例如被分配给光电子测距仪和/或测绘装置的自动目标搜索、目标识别、目标检测或目标跟踪。  The first and / or second beam path can for example be assigned to the optoelectronic rangefinder and / or mapping device automatic target search, object recognition, object detection or object tracking. 尤其是，第一光束路径能是光电子测距仪的激光目标线并且第二光束路径能是测距仪的接收通道。 In particular, a first beam path of the laser range finder photoelectrons can be the target line and the second beam path channel can be received rangefinder.
 为了在具有激光光源的测绘装置中实现光束整形和/或光束偏转，已知的方法(诸如MEMS技术中的微镜阵列(例如DLP)或晶格结构)不可直接应用。  In order to achieve the beam shaping in the mapping device having a laser light source and / or beam deflection, a known method (such as MEMS micromirror array technology (eg DLP) or lattice structure) can not be applied directly. 这些例如由于微镜的弯曲或单个镜的不均匀的激活行为而导致光束中的可见晶格结构或光束失真和/或恶化散度。 These behaviors such as unevenness due to the activation of a single mirror or curved mirror of the beam resulting in visible distortion of the lattice structure or beam and / or deterioration of divergence. 在没有进一步的测量的情况下，当前已知的微镜MEMS不适于激光测绘的应用领域。 In the absence of further measurements, the currently known micromirror MEMS application areas unsuitable for laser mapping.
 现有技术的液体透镜的示例性实施方式例如在US2012/0063000或其中所引用的参考文献中被找到。  Exemplary embodiments of the prior art liquid lens such as is found in US2012 / 0063000 or wherein the cited references. 这样的液体透镜已特别被开发用于便携式照相机，诸如摄像机或普通照相机、网络摄影、手机照相机、平板电脑照相机等。 Such liquid lens has been developed especially for a portable camera, such as a camera or a still camera, webcam, mobile phone cameras, tablet PCs and cameras. 还已开发了这样的透镜，其除了用于调焦的变焦距外还允许光学图像稳定化（0IS)。 Also we have developed such a lens, which in addition to focusing zoom outside also allows the optical image stabilization (0IS). 这的示例在W02012/035026、W02008/037787、 US2010/0295987、US2012/0026596、EP2009468 或US RE39,874 中被找到。 This is an example in W02012 / 035026, W02008 / 037787, US2010 / 0295987, US2012 / 0026596, EP2009468 or US RE39,874 be found. 然而，在本发明中，液液体透镜不用于其目标对像的光学图像识别的原始目的，即，用于成像部件，而是用于辐射测量，即，装置的测绘部件。 However, in the present invention, the liquid of the liquid lens without its target optical image recognition as the original purpose, that is, for the imaging unit, but is used to measure radiation, that is, surveying and mapping components of the device.
 在液体透镜的情况下，存在大大变化的激活和功能原理，例如，电润湿、压电致动器、磁致动器、电容性致动器等。  In the case of the liquid lens, there is an active principle varies greatly and function, e.g., electrowetting, a piezoelectric actuator, a magnetic actuator, a capacitive actuator and the like. 所有这些共有这样的特征，即，液体透镜的光学性质变化由电激活信号感应或控制。 Thus all these common features, i.e., changes in the electrical induction or activation signal controls the optical properties of the liquid lens.
 代替其中光学光束折射基于液体的位移的透镜，也能使用具有处于橡胶-弹性状态的非晶态聚合物的透镜。  instead of which the optical beam refraction lens based on the displacement of the liquid, but also having in rubber - Lens elastic state of amorphous polymers. 这里所用的材料在玻璃化温度之上被使用，使得它们能弹性变形。 As used herein the material above the glass transition temperature is used, so that they can be elastically deformed. 透明膜能被设置为两个这样的可变形介质之间的界限。 Transparent film can be set as a boundary between two such deformable media. 例如，根据本发明的透镜也能利用被封闭在橡胶-弹性封套中的材料来实施，该材料包括透明（在所涉及的光谱范围内） 且可伸展的材料，例如聚乙烯。 For example, a lens according to the present invention can also be enclosed in the use of rubber - elastic material in the envelope embodiment, the material comprises a transparent (in the spectral range covered) and stretchable material, such as polyethylene.
 术语液体透镜因此这里被理解为这样的光学元件，该光学元件具有能通过致动器以针对性方式变形的容积主体，其中利用光学有效容积主体的界面的变形性(该变形性能以针对性方式被激活)，元件的光学折射特性以限定方式可变。  The term liquid lens so here is understood to be an optical element, the optical element having targeted by the actuator in the volume of deformed body, wherein the effective volume of the body by an optical interface deformation (the deformation characteristics to Targeted mode is active), the refractive properties of the optical element to define a variable manner. 例如，这是通过致动器能以针对性方式变形的聚合物透镜或者传统意义上的液体透镜，例如，如由Varioptic S. A生产的。 For example, this is a polymer lens or a liquid lens in the traditional sense by the actuator can be deformed targeted manner, for example, as indicated by Varioptic S. A production.
 根据本发明，测绘装置具有用于操纵至少一个容积主体的控制单元，所述容积主体能通过致动器以针对性方式变形。  According to the present invention, the mapping means having a control unit for operating the main body of the at least one volume, the volume of the body through the actuator to deform targeted manner. 例如，测绘装置具有至少一个容积主体，所述容积主体能通过致动器以针对性方式变形并且被实施为透镜，并且所述容积主体具有至少三个沿着其周向以分布方式布置的致动器，这些致动器能由所述控制单元激活，使得所述元件的光学折射特性能在至少两个非一致的方向上不同地变化。 For example, the mapping means having at least a body volume, the volume of the body through the actuator to deform and targeted manner is implemented as a lens, and the volume of the body having at least three circumferentially distributed along its actuation arranged actuators, these actuators can be activated by the control unit such that the optical refractive properties of the element can vary differently on at least two non-identical directions.
 如果光学元件是具有液体容积主体的液体透镜，则这因此包括例如具有第一和第二光学透明介质的光学透明室，其中所述第一和第二介质是不可混溶的并且具有不同的光学折射率。  If the optical element is a lens having a liquid volume of the liquid body, which is optically transparent and therefore include for example, having a first chamber and a second optically transparent medium, wherein the first and second media are immiscible and having different optical refractive indices. 分别形成容积主体的介质能例如是：含水、含醇或含油液体；处于液体状态的聚合物；硅酮；或硅油。 Medium volume formed body can for example be: an aqueous, alcoholic or oily liquid; the polymer is in the liquid state; silicone; or a silicone oil. 在所述第一和第二介质之间设置界面，其中所述界面能通过所述致动器变形，使得所述液体透镜的光学折射特性能在至少两个非一致的方向上不同地变化。 The interface provided between the first and second dielectric, wherein the interface can deform the actuator, such that the optical refractive properties of the liquid lens can be changed in different non-uniform in at least two directions. 另选地，还能在两个介质之间设置薄的透明膜。 Alternatively, but also between the two media settings thin transparent film.
 例如，光学元件还能实施为能通过致动器以针对性方式变形的聚合物透镜，其中在一个实施方式中该聚合物透镜因而包括具有光学透明介质的光学透明容积主体。  For example, the optical element can also be implemented as an actuator to targeted deformed polymer lens, wherein in one embodiment the polymer thus comprises an optically transparent lens body having a volume optically transparent medium. 所述容积主体至少在一侧利用薄的透明膜被封闭，该膜例如由处于弹性可变形或橡胶-弹性状态的聚合物构成。 The volume of the body is at least on one side using a thin transparent film is closed, for example in the membrane elastically deformable or rubber - elastic state of polymer. 所述膜包括代表透镜主体的中央区，并且还包括外周区，该外周区具有储存器，该储存器具有光学透明介质，其中所述膜的弹性特性或其厚度在各个区域中是不同的。 The film comprises a central region of the representative lens body, and further includes an outer peripheral region, the peripheral zone having a reservoir, the reservoir having an optically transparent medium, wherein the thickness of the elastic properties of the film, or is different in the respective areas. 所述膜能由所述致动器操纵，使得所述储存器的内容物能移位到所述透镜主体中和移出所述透镜主体而进入所述储存器中。 The membrane can be operated by the actuator, such that the contents of the reservoir can be shifted into and out of the lens body in the lens body into the reservoir. 这样，所述聚合物透镜的所述光学折射特性能在至少两个非一致的方向上不同地变化。 Thus, the polymer of the lens optical refraction properties can vary in different non-uniform in at least two directions. 另一类型的聚合物透镜能利用聚合物膜来实施，该聚合物膜的曲率以由致动器激活的方式改变以便设定折射特性。 Another type of polymer lens can be implemented utilizing a polymer membrane, the curvature of the polymer film to the actuator activation-induced changes in the way in order to set the refractive properties. 这样的聚合物透镜的材料能选自包括例如如下材料的组：聚乙二醇二甲基丙烯酸酯（PEGDM)、甲基丙烯酸羟乙酯（HEMA)、 PEGDM和HEMA的共聚物、水凝胶、硅酮、软硅酮、聚硅氧烷、聚乙烯、聚丙烯、改良的聚苯乙烯或聚亚安酯。 Such polymer materials can be selected from the group including a lens group for example the following material: polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDM), hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), PEGDM and HEMA copolymers, hydrogels , silicones, soft silicone, polysiloxane, polyethylene, polypropylene, modified polystyrene or polyurethane.
 用于由橡胶-弹性材料制成的可变形容积主体的特别合适的形式是例如弯月透镜，因为在弯月透镜的情况下，能利用径向力导致两个透镜半径的良好受控变化。  for a rubber - can be particularly suitable form of the deformation volume of the body is made of an elastic material such as meniscus lens, as in the case of meniscus lens, radial forces can lead to good use by the two lens radius change control. 因为容积主体的材料厚度在所有区域中的第一近似或入射高度上保持不变，因此，分配给两个表面的曲率半径在施加径向力时不同地改变，由此，根据透镜制造原则，这样的弹性元件的折射能力也改变。 Because the material thickness of the first volume of the body or incident approximate height in all areas remains unchanged, and therefore, the radius of curvature assigned to the two surfaces changes differently when the radial force exerted thereby, according to the lens manufacturing principles, the refractive power of such an elastic element also changes. 弯月透镜还具有在不同变形的情况下小球面象差的优点，这是因为弯月面形能在整个设定范围内保持。 Meniscus lens also has an advantage in different deformed little spherical aberration, which is formed as a meniscus can be maintained over the entire setting range. 透镜材料的肖氏硬度的选择并且特别是建立基本上由待变形的容积主体的大小和尺寸来确定。 Shore hardness of the lens material and the particular choice is essentially determined by establishing the volume of the body to be deformed size and dimensions. 具有低肖氏A硬度（DIN53505)的一种可能材料将是硅酮式铸模用料，诸如W印esil VT3601E(肖氏A硬度：45)、呈浇注树脂形式的具有中等肖氏A 硬度的材料将是例如polyurethane (聚亚安酯）W印uran VT3404(肖氏A硬度：50)。 Having a low Shore A hardness (DIN53505) A possible material is a silicone-type mold materials, such as W printing esil VT3601E (Shore A hardness: 45), was cast in the form of a resin material having a Shore A hardness of medium It would be e.g. polyurethane (polyurethane) W printing uran VT3404 (Shore A hardness: 50).
 对于能通过致动器以针对性方式变形的容积主体存在大大变化的激活和功能原理，例如，电润湿、压电致动器、磁致动器、电容性致动器、热致动器等。  For through the actuator to targeted volume of deformed body there is an active and functional principles varies greatly, such as electrowetting, a piezoelectric actuator, a magnetic actuator, capacitive actuators, heat actuators and the like. 通过由致动器产生的电激活信号直接或间接地导致容积主体的界面的光学特性的变化，所述界面能借助致动器以针对性方式变形。 Result in changes in the optical properties of the interface between the volume of the body directly or indirectly activated by electrical signals generated by the actuator, the actuator means of the interfacial energy to targeted deformed.
 根据本发明的液体透镜因此还包括如所述的其他可设定的透镜元件，其中折射特性能通过界面的形变来执行，该形变在操作期间能动态地激活，特别是电力激活。  The liquid lens of the present invention therefore also includes other elements that can be set as a lens, wherein the refractive properties of the strain is performed by the interface, the strain during operation can be dynamically activated, in particular the power activation.
 因为测绘仪器和测量装置用于大大变化的设备、布点、和装置位置或者也在测绘范围内枢转，因此测绘仪器中的元件尽可能重力无关，从而避免否则将是必须的液体透镜激励器的附加的重力相关的重调。  For surveying instruments and apparatus for measuring equipment varies greatly, distribution, and device location mapping, or also within the scope of the pivot, and therefore has nothing to do surveying instruments in the element of gravity as possible, otherwise it will be necessary to avoid liquid lens additional gravity associated actuator retune. 因此，在测绘装置的许多实施方式中，重力不变式部件在光程中是优选的，这些部件保持其独立于空间位置和其重力方向的特性。 Thus, in many embodiments the mapping means, gravity is preferred invariant component in the optical path, these components maintain their spatial position and are independent of the characteristics of its gravity direction. 由于相等的液体密度造成的无重力式液体透镜的一个示例例如在W02008/095923中找到。 An example of a liquid due to the equal density caused by the gravity type liquid lens, for example, found in W02008 / 095923 in.
 目标线修改能利用根据本发明的测绘装置中的液体透镜来进行，该液体透镜设置有横着可变的折射特性。  target line can use to modify the mapping device according to the present invention, the liquid lens to the liquid lens is provided with a sideways variable refractive properties. 这被理解为意味着，测绘装置11的光束路径通过液体透镜被修改。 This is understood to mean that the beam path of the mapping apparatus 11 is modified by the liquid lens. 该目标线修改能相应地在测绘装置中被静态地执行，即，在第一设定之后很长一段时间内不变或者不具有或仅具有非常微小的按照时间顺序变化的速率-和/或动态地(即，按照时间顺序)改变，例如循环地或周期地改变，如这在后面更详细地进行描述。 Modification of the target line can be executed statically mapping apparatus Accordingly, i.e., the same or no or only a long period of time after the first set very small rate of change in chronological order - and / or dynamically (i.e., in chronological order) to change, for example, cyclically or periodically change, as it will be described in more detail later. 此外，静态目标线修改也在后面称为"光束对准"并且动态目标线修改称为"光束转向"。 In addition, the static target line modifications are hereinafter referred to as "beam alignment" and dynamically modify the target line called "beam steering." 根据本发明，能单独地或与液体透镜任何任意组合分别导致列出的修改。 According to the present invention, can be used alone or in any arbitrary combination of the liquid lens and cause modification listed separately.
 光束对准能用来形成静态目标线修改，例如，用于校准目的，即，例如，用于自动对准测绘装置。  beam alignment can be used to form a static target line changes, for example, for calibration purposes, that is, for example, for automatic alignment of the mapping device. 自动目标线稳定化因此在某种意义上被执行。 Automatic target line stabilization therefore be executed in a sense. 因此，例如，在制造和对准装置期间高要求也能被部分降低，这是因为测绘装置中的根据本发明的液体透镜能够补偿(尤其较小的）失准。 Thus, for example, during manufacturing and alignment means it can also be part of high demand decreases because the mapping device able to compensate (especially smaller) misalignment lens according to the present invention is a liquid. 这能通过电激活来自动执行，并且一组关联的校准参数能被存储，这组校准参数在每次加电期间能再次被重新得到并且能被设定在液体透镜上。 This can be electrically activated to automatically perform, and a set of associated calibration parameters can be stored, which each set of calibration parameters during power can be retrieved again and can be set on the liquid lens. 热漂移也例如能利用例如前述确定的校准表来补偿。 Thermal drift also can use such as for example the aforementioned calibration table to determine compensation. 尤其因为几个对准误差也能由视野中的两位置测量确定，因此相应要求的静态的液体透镜设定也能在视野中并且根据当前存在的环境条件来确定。 Especially since a few alignment errors can be determined by measuring two positions in the Vision, so the corresponding static liquid lens can also set requirements and to determine the field of view based on the current environmental conditions exist. 为了解决可能的装置缺陷，根据本发明的液体透镜是必须的，其不仅允许简单的焦距调整，而且其可变形使得因此液体透镜的光学折射特性能在至少两个非一致的方向上，尤其在正交于液体透镜的光学轴线的平面中的至少两个方向上不同地变化。 In order to address possible means defect, according to the liquid lens of the present invention is a must, not only allows for easy focus adjustment, and so therefore it can deform the optical refractive properties of the liquid lens can be at least two non-identical direction, especially in the at least two different changing direction in the plane orthogonal to the optical axis of the liquid lens. 特别是，所述方向能将透镜横截面面积分成至少大约相等尺寸的段。 In particular, the direction of the cross-sectional area of the lens can be divided into segments at least approximately equal size.
 利用目标物体上(例如照相机图像中）的发射的光辐射的入射点的可选识别，激光目标线能可视化并且能导致呈控制回路形式的其位置的主动稳定化。  The use of the target object (such as a camera image) Optional identification optical radiation emitted incident point, laser target line can be visualized and can lead to the control circuit in the form of the initiative was to stabilize its position. 除了位置之外，也能调节其他目标线参数，诸如目标上的点尺寸、光束形状等。 In addition to location, the target line can adjust other parameters, such as spot size on the target, the beam shape. 然而，为了利用反馈调节，在发射光的装置内的识别也能在液体透镜之后被施加，其中也能使用透镜上的可选的内部（寄生） 镜效应、光束偏转元件上的残留传输等。 However, in order to regulate the use of feedback, recognition in the device emitted light can also be applied after the liquid lens, which also can use an optional lens on the internal (parasitic) mirror effect, residual transmission beam deflection element and the like. 除专用的光学位置敏感元件(例如，PSD、积分二极管、或者作为实际值发生器的一个或多个PIN二极管）之外，那些反射器也能在例如为另一目的已设的照相机的未使用的像素上被引导。 In addition to the dedicated optical position sensitive device (e.g., PSD, integral diode, or as an actual value generator or a plurality of PIN diodes) than those in the reflector can be provided, for example, a camera has been another object of the unused the pixels are guided. 呈通过电容传感器确定例如在液体透镜本身上的当前透镜形状的形式的反馈是用于执行液体透镜的主动调节的另一可能性。 Was determined by the capacitive sensor, such as a liquid lens itself in the form of a lens-shaped feedback current is another possibility for the implementation of active regulation of the liquid lens. 另外，距离测量模块的距离信息的项目也能被结合在用于液体透镜激活的控制回路中，以确保跟踪目标物体上测量光束的聚集。 Further, the distance measurement distance information item can also be incorporated in the module for activation of the liquid lens control loop to ensure aggregation measuring beam on the object to track the target.
 除距离测量目标线在测绘装置的目标轴线上的最针对性的可能的对准之外，与该条件的针对性且受控的偏差在各种测量应用的情况下也是有利的。  In addition to the distance measurement target line most likely targeted axis aligned on the target mapping apparatus, and targeted to the conditions and controlled the deviation in the case of a variety of measurement applications is also beneficial. 根据本发明的利用液体透镜的这样目标线修改的示例在以下提供。 According to an example using a liquid lens so that the target line of the present invention are provided in the following modifications.
 由于液体透镜在多个方向上的不同变形性，能获得光束发散或光束会聚的设定以及还获得发射的光辐射的方向变化。  Since the liquid lens in a direction different from the plurality of deformation can be obtained beam divergence or beam convergence setting change direction and further obtain optical radiation emitted. 换言之，在观察发射的光束的传播方向时，或多或少地获得能在二维中设定的光楔效应。 In other words, when viewed in the direction of propagation of the light beam emitted, more or less wedge effect obtained can be set in two dimensions. 然而，在利用测绘装置中的根据本发明的液体透镜可执行的目标线修改的情况下，本发明甚至超过这个效应，如根据本发明的目标线修改的另外的示例示出的。 However, the use of the mapping device in case of a liquid lens according to the present invention, the modified executable target line, another example of the present invention is even more than this effect, as modified according to the target line of the present invention is shown.
 例如，液体透镜能应用于呈激光扫描器的形式的测绘装置中，如在国际申请号PCT/EP2012/058656中所述的。  For example, the liquid lens can be used in the form of a laser scanner mapping device, as described in International Application No. PCT / EP2012 / 058656. 在这里说明的校准方法的范围内，根据本发明的所用的液体透镜能用于测绘装置以用于主动误差补偿。 In the range of the calibration method described herein, according to the liquid lens used in the present invention can be used for mapping means for active error compensation. 利用液体透镜的根据本发明的目标线修改能用来补偿目标线误差。 Using a liquid lens according to the present invention to modify the target line can be used to compensate the goal line errors. 由于液体透镜的高动态激活能力，这能甚至在扫描操作期间执行，即， 例如，在扫描器的一次旋转内可变轴线适应和/或自动聚焦。 Due to the high dynamic activation capacity of the liquid lens, which can be executed even during a scanning operation, i.e., for example, in a rotation axis of the scanner variable adaptation and / or autofocus. 因为扫描器的装置特定构造， 液体透镜有利地附接在装置主体中，即，其仅绕两个轴线中的一个轴线旋转。 Because the scanner device-specific configuration, the liquid lens is advantageously attached device main body, i.e., it is only about one axis of the two axes.
 例如，如果物体在更大距离内利用激光扫描器来测绘，则用于测量辐射的偏转镜因此在光脉冲的渡越时间（T0F)期间进一步旋转，由此，接收器的视野（F0V)也枢转。 Deflection mirror  For example, if the object in a larger distance to mapping using a laser scanner, is used to measure the radiation time thus further rotation of the light pulse transition (T0F) period, whereby the receiver field of view ( F0V) is also pivoted. 在快速扫描运动和/或大距离的情况下，这方面必须在设计接收器的光学视野中被考虑，例如， 因为视野通过扩大的圆形孔例如相对于角度被扩大以确保光脉冲仍在F0V的范围内并且因此能在渡越时间的终点被接收(其中偏转镜相应地进一步旋转)。 In the case of fast scanning movement and / or large distances, this aspect must be considered in the design of the receiver optical sight, for example, because the field of vision, for example by expanding the circular hole is enlarged with respect to the angle of the light pulse is still to ensure F0V and thus within the range is received (wherein further rotation of the deflection mirror respectively) at the end of the transit time. 然而，较大的视野具有以下缺点，即，更多环境光将被收集并且测量信号因散粒噪声而恶化。 However, a larger field of vision has the disadvantage that, more ambient light will be collected and the signal deteriorated due to shot noise measurements. 为此光机械消转器是已知的解决方案。 To do light mechanical derotator are known solutions. 从物体反射的并且到达接收孔的测量脉冲组至少近似描述了圆形路径。 Reflected from the object and reaches the receiving hole measuring pulse group of at least approximately describes the circular path. 借助于道威棱镜（Dove prism)，圆形路径上的旋转运动能至少被成像或变换成静止极角段，由此接收孔能被实施为狭槽并且小于没有激活补偿措施的情况。 By means of a dove prism (Dove prism), the rotational movement of the circular path can at least be imaged or transformed into stationary pole angle segment, thereby receiving hole can be the implementation of the slot and no less than the activation compensatory measures. 在测距仪的光束路径中液体透镜的根据本发明的使用的情况下，由脉冲组描绘的圆形路径能变换回到接收器的光学轴线上。 In the rangefinder beam path in the case of the use of the present invention, the circular path can be depicted by the pulses back into the liquid conversion lens on an optical axis of the receiver. 这能通过与扫描器偏转运动（即，例如，偏转镜的旋转)同步地激活的液体透镜来实现。 This can be a scanner yaw movement (i.e., e.g., rotating the deflection mirror) activated in synchronization with the liquid lens to achieve. 尤其是，接收光束路径中的液体透镜能为此被激活，使得其光学折射特性在至少两个非一致的方向（尤其在垂直于液体透镜的光学轴线的平面中的至少两个方向）上不同地变化，使得接收光束始终入射穿过接收器上的小(例如，圆形）孔，并且因此接收器的视野能被选择成较小且较少的环境光被捕获。 In particular, the beam path to receive the liquid lens can be activated for this, so that the optical refractive properties in at least two different non-uniform orientation (especially in a plane perpendicular to the optical axis of the liquid lens in at least two directions) changes, so that the receiver always enters through the small beam (e.g., circular) hole on the receiver, the receiver field of view and thus can be selected to be smaller and less ambient light is captured. 因此液体透镜补偿或减小先前描述的圆形路径， 优选地减小到一个光点。 Therefore, the circular path of the liquid lens to compensate or reduce the previously described, is preferably reduced to a spot.
 当在测绘装置中采用根据本发明使用的液体透镜时，能进行目标线修改，而没有使用复杂的机构和可动部件，并且装置中的光束路径不会更加复杂。  When using the liquid lens according to the present invention, the target line can be modified without using a complicated mechanism and movable parts, and in mapping device and the device in the beam path is not more complicated. 相反，光束路径被简化并且测距仪中的所需部件以及部件对准更简单，这是因为许多不精确性能由液体透镜补偿，该液体透镜能通过适当的激活在多个方向上不同地调节。 In contrast, the beam path is simplified and the desired range finder member and the alignment member easier, because many inaccurate performance by the liquid lens compensation, the liquid lens can be adjusted appropriately activated in a plurality of different directions .
 根据本发明，对于工厂校准和组装精度的要求能借助于液体透镜在一些区域被显著放松，这是因为利用根据本发明的构造，许多误差能被检测到并且，如有必要，还在操作或前述配置和校准期间在视野中被补偿。  According to the present invention, for factory calibration and accuracy requirements can be assembled by means of the liquid lens is remarkably relaxed in some areas, it is because the use of constructed in accordance with the present invention, many errors can be detected and, if necessary, In operation during the preceding configuration and calibration in the field of view or be compensated. 例如，利用已知的两位置测量，轴线误差能在视野中被建立并且这能通过液体透镜的适当激活而被补偿。 For example, using the known two-position measurement axis error can be established and properly activate it through the liquid lens is compensated in the visual field. 所有当前环境条件也都被考虑在内。 All current environmental conditions are also taken into account. 液体透镜允许光学器件的直接适应和误差的实际去除并且不仅数字补偿现有误差，为此不要求装置中的机械干涉。 Allow the liquid lens optics actual removal of direct adaptation and error and not only the existing digital compensation error, for which device does not require mechanical interference.
 根据本发明引起部件数量的减少也有助于提高精度，尤其提高测绘装置的长期稳定性和鲁棒性。  reducing the number of components also helps improve accuracy, especially to improve the long-term stability and robustness of the mapping device according to the present invention causes.
 此外，利用根据本发明的液体透镜，成像误差也能在测绘仪器中得到补救。  In addition, the use of a liquid lens according to the present invention, imaging errors can be remedied in surveying and mapping instrument. 例如， 在小容积仪器的情况下，光束路径常常利用中空镜被同时折叠和聚集，其中光学波前的象差在该镜的离轴布置的情况下出现。 For example, in the case of a small volume of the instrument, the beam path of the hollow mirrors are often used simultaneously folding and aggregation, wherein the optical wavefront aberration occurs in the case of the off-axis mirror arrangement. 借助于具有多个激励器的液体透镜，激励器例如呈放置在透镜的外部区域上的激活电极的形式，能补偿这样的更高阶象差。 By means of a liquid lens having a plurality of actuators, actuators for example, was placed on the outer region of the lens of the activation electrodes, it can compensate for such higher-order aberrations. 例如，沿水平和坚直横向方向的像散或慧差可以通过电极上的不同控制电压被改变并且因此光束路径的相应的系统误差能被校正，而仪器中光学元件的位置的机械对准不是必须的。 For example, strong horizontal and straight transverse direction coma aberration or astigmatism can be changed by the control voltage different electrode system and thus the corresponding beam path errors can be corrected, and the position of the optical elements of the instrument is not mechanical alignment must.
 光束转向能用于动态（S卩，按照时间顺序快速改变）目标线修改，例如，用于扫描或目标跟踪。  The beam steering can be used for dynamic (S Jie, rapid changes in chronological order) goal line changes, for example, for scanning or target tracking. 液体透被动态激活从而获得与目标轴线的有意偏差，即，换言之，利用测距仪扫描目标区域。 Liquid permeability is dynamically activated thereby obtaining intentionally target axis deviation, that is, in other words, the use of rangefinders scanning the target area.
 以下说明几个示例性应用，诸如测量边缘和角部，以及表面倾角确定。  The following examples illustrate a few applications, such as edges and corners of the measure, and surface inclination OK.
 动态目标线修改的另一示例由移动的目标物体的动态路径跟踪代表。  Another example of dynamic object tracking to modify the line represented by the dynamic path of the moving target object. 在现有技术中，这借助装置的伺服轴线单独地被执行，这些伺服轴线通常被设计为更多用于精确的快速运动。 In the prior art, this axis by means of servo means individually to be executed, which is designed as a servo axis generally more accurate for rapid movement. 具有ATR功能的视距仪或经纬仪实际上能跟踪运动目标，即使望远镜对准未被理想地对准于运动目标点，然而，EDM常常具有过小的视野（F0V)，使得信号中断再三发生。 ATR function has a tachymeter or theodolite can actually track a moving target, even if the telescope is not ideally aligned with the movement of the target point, however, EDM often have too small a field of view (F0V), so that the signal is interrupted repeatedly occur. 借助于用于目标线修改的根据本发明的液体透镜，一方面，距离测量的F0V能被改变。 Means for modifying the target line of the liquid lens according to the present invention, on the one hand, the distance measurement can be changed F0V. 为此， 例如，液体透镜也能被使用于EDM的接收光束路径中。 To this end, for example, the liquid lens can also be used for EDM reception beam path. 另一方面，在ATR的较大F0V内EDM 目标线的方向控制能被执行，即，测距仪能拟对准在目标物体上，而装置的相对惰性目标轴线没有跟踪快速的目标运动。 On the other hand, in the direction of greater F0V inside the target line ATR EDM control can be performed, that is, intended to align rangefinder can be on the target object, and relatively inert target axis of the device does not track fast target motion. 装置轴线仅缓慢且粗糙地跟踪目标物体，虽然借助于液体透镜能跟踪更快速的运动。 It means axis slow and rough track only the target object, although the means of the liquid lens can track more rapid movement. 因此在没有信号中断时的路径跟踪的情况下可以测绘3-D坐标。 Therefore, in the case when there is no signal path interruption can track mapping 3-D coordinates.
 除上述操作模式之外，根据本发明的利用液体透镜的光束对准也能够作为另一静态目标线修改来实现目标线的聚集变化或光束发散。  In addition to the above-described mode of operation, a liquid lens according to the present invention, the beam alignment can also be further modified as to realize the target line static aggregation target line changes or beam divergence. 利用液体透镜的适当激活，特别是通过导致界面沿两个方向的至少近似对称变形的激励进行的适当激活，将执行发射的辐射的焦距改变。 Activation with a suitable liquid lens, in particular by leading to the interface of the two directions at least approximately be suitably activated symmetric excitation deformation, performs the radiation emitted from the focal length change. 因此，例如，通过在近场（小于大约30m)中的改变的会聚，测量辐射的近场遮蔽能通过同轴光束路径来避免，即，所谓的辐射测量近场光学能以自动且能自由构造的方式来实施。 Thus, for example, by the near field (less than about 30m) in convergence changes, near-field measurements of radiation shielding by a coaxial beam path to avoid, namely, the so-called near-field optical radiation measurement can be automated and can be freely configured The way to implement. 在反射器测量的情况下(例如利用棱镜目标)发射发散也能被选择成大于无反射器测量的情况，在无反射器测量中，具有较小发散的聚集光束优选地被使用。 In the case of the reflector measured (for example, using a prism target) emission divergence can also be selected to be greater in the case of non-reflection measurements, reflectorless measurement, has a smaller beam divergence gathered preferably used. 在测绘装置中利用根据本发明的液体透镜，这能在目标线修改的范围内被执行，诸如来自现有技术的枢转透镜之类的机械移动的部件不是必须的。 In the mapping apparatus utilizing the liquid lens according to the present invention, which can be performed within the range of the target line changes, such as mechanical moving parts from the prior art pivoting lens or the like is not necessary.
 借助于焦距变化，在测量反射目标标记期间，接收信号的强度也能被设定在一定范围内。  by means of the focal length changes during the measurement target mark reflectance, the intensity of the received signal can also be set within a certain range. 例如，光束发散能与距离的增加成反比例地改变，反射器上的光点因此具有不变的直径。 For example, to change the beam divergence can be increased in inverse proportion to the distance of the light spot on the reflector therefore has a constant diameter. 反射器上辐照度因此能保持至少近似恒定，由此，接收器上的信号强度也保持至少大约相等(这里被忽视的大气传递能可选地也被考虑到)。 Thus irradiance on the reflector can be maintained at least approximately constant, whereby, on the received signal strength is maintained at least approximately equal (atmospheric transfer neglected here can optionally also be taken into account). 待由接收电子装置管理的信号动态能因此基本上被降低和/或绝对距离测量精度能被提高。 Receiving the electronic device to be managed by the dynamic signal can thus be substantially reduced and / or absolute distance measurement accuracy can be improved.
 除了用于无反射器距离测量的最低发散可能光束的发射以外，目标物体上的光束的聚集也能作为一种自动聚集功能被执行，该自动聚集功能不仅能用于改进目标点的可见性或EDM中的较高信号强度，而且还允许例如在利用视距仪或激光扫描器的点云准备期间由较小测量点造成的较高点分辨率。  In addition to the minimum distance reflectorless measurement may be diverging beam emitted outside of the beam on the target object aggregation can also be used as an automatic aggregation function is executed, the autofocus function only can be used to improve the target point visibility or EDM in a higher signal strength, but also allows a higher point resolution, for example during the point cloud ready to use stadia or laser scanner caused by a small measuring point. 为了设定焦距，能提高距离测量的结果。 In order to set the focal length, can improve the results of distance measurement. 利用该目标线修改，使用者能指定例如在测量期间或两个测量之间测距仪在目标物体上的目标点的期望直径以例如解决特定测量任务或目标物体的几何形状。 With this goal line modification, the user can specify, for example during the measurement or rangefinder target point on the target object desired diameter, for example between the two measurement geometries solve specific measurement tasks or target object.
 作为由液体透镜进行的另一静态目标线修改，在发射用于距离测量的两个波长的情况下，无论可选地(例如，IR或可见)或共同地(具有用于目标线可视化的可见导向光束的IR)，利用一个或多个液体透镜能导致相应的光学轴线的对准或不同发散的补偿。  As another target line static modification by the liquid lens, in the case of the two emission wavelengths for distance measurement, both optionally (e.g., IR or visible) or together (with the target line for Visualization visible guide beam IR), use of one or more of the liquid lens can cause alignment of the respective optical axis to compensate for different or divergent. 因此，例如，存在激光二极管，这些激光二极管在现有技术中是已知的并且具有用于不同波长的彼此非常靠近的两个发射区，所述激光二极管也是可用的，这是因为两个通道能利用液体透镜可选地放置在一起。 Thus, for example, the presence of the laser diode, the laser diodes are known and used for emitting region having two different wavelengths very near each other in the prior art, the laser diode is available, this is because the two channels Alternatively, using a liquid lens can be placed together. 因此，例如，用于协作目标物体的发散IR光束或者用于无反射器目标的校准可见光束能被发射，其中相同目标线对准的转换和确保利用根据本发明的用于测绘装置中的液体透镜来实现。 Thus, for example, IR beam divergence for cooperative target object or target reflector for calibrating the non-visible light beam can be emitted, wherein the same conversion target line and aligned to ensure that the use of apparatus according to the present invention for mapping the liquid lens to achieve.
 根据本发明能够利用液体透镜来进行的目标线修改的另一特定特征由半导体激光器的不同发散轴的补偿来表示。  According to another particular feature of the present invention can be carried out using a liquid lens to modify the target line represented by the compensation of different semiconductor laser divergence axis. 因此利用液体透镜来执行呈由半导体激光器发射的光辐射的不同发散角的光束整形的形式的静态目标线修改。 So it was performed using a liquid lens optical radiation of different divergence angle emitted by a semiconductor laser beam shaping in the form of a static target line changes. 根据本发明，这可以由液体透镜沿多个方向的不同变形性来补偿。 According to the present invention, this deformation can be compensated by the liquid lens along a plurality of different directions. 激光二极管的残余象散因此能被补救并且目标物体上的光点由此能被不太成椭圆地成形并且典型地也较小，由此目标物体上的辐照度也变得更大。 The residual astigmatism of the laser diode can be remedied, and thus the light spot on the target object to thereby be less oval shaped and typically also small, whereby the irradiance on the target object becomes larger.
 如果两个液体透镜彼此隔开特定距离被使用，则因此产生另外的光束整形可能性。  If the two liquid lenses spaced a certain distance from each other are used, thus creating the possibility of a further beam shaping. 由于透镜对的变形的柔性激活能力，因此例如，激光二极管的椭圆形光束能被转变成圆形束。 Due to the flexible deformation of the activation power of the lens, so that for example, a laser diode can be elliptical beam into a circular beam. 半导体激光二极管因此能以几乎任何任意取向安装在装置中。 Thus the semiconductor laser diode can be installed in almost any arbitrary orientation means. 而且，没有光学元件必须此后被机械对准，而是借助于液体透镜，对准能首先在设立工厂设置期间或者甚至稍后在视野中与装置组装结合地执行。 Moreover, no optical components must thereafter be aligned mechanically, but by means of a liquid lens, the alignment can be set up during the first or even later in connection with the factory settings in the implementation of the Vision and device assembly.
 由液态透镜进行的另一静态变化可以呈所产生的测量辐射的至少一部分到装置内的已知长度的基准路径上的偏转的形式来执行，以进行距离测量功能的校准。  Another static lens changes from a liquid form can measure radiation generated in the form of at least part of the deflection reference path of known length on the apparatus to perform, for calibration of the distance measurement function. 利用液体透镜，经由内部路径被偏转的辐射的分量的变化能作为目标线修改被执行，为此目的装置中的可移动机械部件不是必须的。 A liquid lens, change the weight of the radiation deflected via the internal path can be performed as a modification of the target line, the apparatus for this purpose a movable mechanical member is not necessary.
 能在测绘装置中利用液体透镜根据本发明来执行的上述光束对准的操作模式也能应用于现有技术中不是已知的另一动态目标线修改。  We can use liquid lens in the beam mapping apparatus according to the present invention to perform alignment mode of operation can also be applied to the prior art is not aware of another dynamic goal-line changes. 利用测绘装置中的液体透镜，例如， 发射机侧的光混合器能被实施用于以简单的方式使测距仪的调制波前（FRD)平滑。 Mapping apparatus utilizing the liquid lens, e.g., an optical transmitter-side mixer can be implemented in a simple manner for rangefinder modulated wave front (FRD) smoothing. FRD能利用动态移动的液体透镜通过激光光束混合来改进，尤其是在液体透镜的折射特性能根据本发明在两个或更多个不同方向上不同地被修改的情况下。 FRD can use the dynamic movement of the laser beam by mixing the liquid lens to improve, especially in the case where the refractive properties of the liquid lens according to the present invention in two or more different directions variously modified. 另外，修改的高动态响应或带宽也能利用液体透镜来获得。 In addition, the high dynamic response or bandwidth can be modified to obtain a liquid lens. 该动态目标线修改不仅在从测绘装置发射的距离测量辐射的情况下而且还在发射的ATR辐射的情况下能有利地应用。 This dynamic goal line modifications not only in the case from the mapping device for measuring the radiation emitted from the case and ATR also emitted radiation can be advantageously applied.
 在测量发射和/或ATR辐射期间发生的测绘装置中的根据本发明的液体透镜的动态变形也能应用于抑制斑点影响。  In measuring the emission and / or mapping device ATR radiation occurring during the dynamic deformation of the liquid lens according to the present invention can also be applied to suppress the speckle effect. 为此，液体透镜的折射特性的非常微小的变化常常是足够的，即，仅其界面微小变形。 For this reason, very small changes in refractive properties of liquid lens is often sufficient, i.e., the interface only slight deformation. 这能以相应的高频来进行，如有必要，还与这里描述的其他目标线修改重叠。 It can be appropriate to carry out a high frequency, if necessary, other target line overlaps with modifications described herein. 例如，液体透镜的角偏转的周期性最小变化(即，发射的光束的摇动)或者焦距的微小变化（即，聚集的呼吸）能被执行。 For example, periodic changes in the minimum deflection angle of the liquid lens (i.e., the light beam emitted shaking) or small changes in focal length (i.e., aggregated respiration) can be performed. 透镜界面的更复杂的变形还可以被执行以导致利用多个可激活的液体透镜的这样的效果。 More complex interfaces anamorphic lens can also be performed using a plurality of activatable to cause the liquid lens such effects.
 液体透镜的根据本发明的另一应用能发生在ATR模块的接收光束路径中，其中能利用液体透镜执行图像传感器在目标物体或目标(例如，作为用于附接至目标物体的回射膜的回射带目标)上的可变聚集。  The liquid lens according to the received beam path of a further application of the present invention can occur in the ATR module, which can be executed by the liquid lens image sensor target object or target (e.g., as a back for attachment to the target object shoot the film with retroreflective target) variable on aggregate. 如果将三棱镜用作ATR目标，则聚集能因此被执行以使距目标的距离加倍。 If the ATR prism is used as the target, the aggregate can therefore be performed so that the distance from the target of doubling. 然而，在现有技术中，具有固定焦距光学器件的ATR的接收光束路径被设定成无限的，这导致特别是在带目标的情况下近场中ATR的图像传感器或PSD上的光点的模糊成像，由此方向测量变得不精确。 However, in the prior art, ATR has received a fixed focal length optics beam path is set to infinity, which leads to the spot, especially in the case with the goal of near field of the image sensor or PSD ATR on the fuzzy imaging, whereby the direction of measurement becomes inaccurate. 在ATR的接收光束路径中利用根据本发明的液体透镜，尤其是还在近场中能获得ATR目标的至少近似的锐度成像。 ATR use in the beam path of the receiving liquid lens according to the present invention, in particular can be obtained also in the near field of at least approximately ATR target image sharpness. 如果根据本发明的一个或多个液体透镜能在ATR接收光束路径中沿至少两个方向不同地变化，则因此，例如，ATR接收器的视野也能被水平或坚直地移位，例如，以便在没有轴线运动的情况下水平和/或坚直地扫描用于目标的较大区域。 If the ATR can be received in the beam path of the present invention according to one or more of the liquid lens varies along at least two different directions, it is therefore, for example, the receiver of the ATR field of view can also be shifted horizontally or straight Kennedy, e.g., so that in case there is no axis motion horizontal and / or vertical scan a large area hard for goals. 此外，ATR的接收通道的缩放功能能利用根据本发明的液体透镜来获得，例如，以在具有较大视野的液体透镜的第一次激活中确定目标的粗糙位置， 以如有必要通过枢转装置轴线而粗糙地瞄准该位置，并且随后在利用比前述更小的视野的液体透镜的第二次激活中以已知的方式精确确定目标位置。 In addition, a reception channel ATR zoom function can use the liquid lens according to the present invention is obtained, for example, to determine the rough position of the target in the first activation of the liquid lens has a larger field of view in order to pivot, if necessary by It means axis targeting the rough position, and then using a smaller field of view than previous liquid lens in the second activated in a known manner to determine the precise target location.
附图说明 Brief Description
 下面将基于附图中示意性地示出的具体示例性实施方式只作为示例更加详细地描述根据本发明的方法和根据本发明的装置。  The following will specifically based on the accompanying drawings exemplary embodiments schematically shown only as a method and apparatus according to the present invention, the present invention is described in more detail in accordance with examples. 这里还将讨论本发明的更多优点。 There will also discuss more advantages of the invention. 在单独的附图中： In a separate drawings:
 图1示出了在本发明的限定中测绘装置的实施方式的示例；  FIG. 1 shows an example of embodiment of the invention is defined in the mapping device;
 图2a示出了根据本发明的测绘装置的第一实施方式的内部结构的示意图；  Figure 2a shows a schematic view of an internal structure of a first embodiment according to the mapping device according to the present invention;
 图2b示出了根据本发明的测绘装置的第二实施方式的内部结构的示意图；  Figure 2b shows a schematic view of an internal structure according to a second embodiment of the apparatus of the present invention, the mapping of;
 图2c示出了根据本发明的测绘装置的第三实施方式的内部结构的示意图；  Figure 2c shows a schematic diagram of an internal structure of the third embodiment of the mapping device of the present invention;
 图3a、3b和3c示出了利用测绘装置中的液体透镜进行根据本发明的目标线修改的第一示例性简图；  Figures 3a, 3b and 3c shows the mapping device using the liquid lens be modified according to the target line of the present invention a first exemplary diagram;
 图4a和图4b示出了在测绘装置中利用液体透镜的根据本发明的目标线修改的第二示例性简图；  Figures 4a and 4b show the use of a liquid lens in mapping device modified according to the target line of the present invention is an exemplary diagram of a second;
 图5示出了根据本发明的液体透镜的实施方式的第一示例性操作模式；  FIG. 5 shows an embodiment of a liquid lens according to the present invention a first exemplary mode of operation;
 图6a、6b和6c示出了根据本发明的液体透镜的实施方式的第二示例性操作模式；  Figures 6a, 6b and 6c show the liquid lens according to an embodiment of the present invention, a second exemplary mode of operation;
 图7a、7b和7c示出了根据本发明的液体透镜的实施方式的第三示例性操作模式；  Figures 7a, 7b and 7c show the liquid lens according to an embodiment of the present invention, a third exemplary mode of operation;
 图8&、813、8(：、8(1、86、8€、88、811和8丨示出了利用液体透镜的根据本发明的测绘装置中的示例性目标线修改；  FIG. 8 &, 813,8 (:, 8 (1,86,8 €, 88,811, and 8 丨 shows a liquid lens changes according to the mapping device of the present invention, an exemplary target line;
 图9示出了利用根据本发明的液体透镜的第一目标线修改的示例性示意图；  FIG. 9 shows a schematic view of an exemplary use of the target line according to a first modification of the liquid lens of the present invention;
 图10示出了利用根据本发明的液体透镜的第二目标线修改的示例性示意图；  图11示出了利用根据本发明的液体透镜的第三目标线修改的示例性示意图；  FIG. 10 shows a schematic diagram of an exemplary use of the target line according to a second modification of the liquid lens according to the present invention;  FIG. 11 illustrates the use of the target line according to the third modification of the present invention, the liquid lens exemplary schematic;
 图12示出了利用根据本发明的液体透镜的第四目标线修改的示例性示意图；  FIG. 12 shows a schematic diagram of an exemplary use of the target line according to a fourth modification of the present invention, the liquid lens;
 图13a、13b和13c示出了在利用具有液体透镜的根据本发明的测绘装置的测绘任务  FIG. 13a, 13b and 13c shows a mapping mission in the use of a liquid lens according to the mapping device of the present invention.
 期间目标线适应的示例； Example goal line adaptation  period;
 图14a、14b和14c示出了用于目标线修改的具有液体透镜的根据本发明的测绘装置的实施方式的另外的示例。  FIG. 14a, 14b and 14c shows a further example of the mapping device according to an embodiment of the present invention for a liquid lens changes the target line.
具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION
 图1示出了应用本发明的测绘装置11的示例。  FIG. 1 shows an example of the mapping device 11 of the invention is applied. 装置11具有基部1，利用该基部装置例如利用三脚架(这里未示出）为测绘目的而被配置。 Device 11 has a base 1, for example, by using the tripod base means (not shown here) is arranged for the purpose of mapping. 装置11的装置主体2附接至基部1，该装置主体具有可绕坚轴7旋转的坚直测角仪。 The apparatus body 11 is attached to the base 2 1, the apparatus main body having a shaft 7 rotates around the solid straight strong goniometer. 基部1具有用于水平对准测绘装置11或者换言之用于例如借助于三个调节螺钉和圆水准器和/或电子水准仪垂直调节坚轴7 的单元。 1 has a horizontally aligned base mapping device 11 or in other words, for example by means of three adjustment screws and circular level and / or electronic level adjustment unit strong vertical shaft 7. 装置主体2具有操作单元4并且由倾斜轴测角仪连接至瞄准单元3,该倾斜轴测角仪能绕倾斜轴线8旋转。 Main unit 2 has an operation unit 4 and is connected to the tilt-circle goniometer aiming unit 3, the tilt-circle goniometer rotatable about an axis of rotation inclined 8. 在所示情况下，瞄准单元3具有望远镜瞄准器，该望远镜瞄准器具有物镜6并且具有目镜5, S卩，其配备有透明光通道。 In the case shown, has a telescopic sight aiming means 3, the telescopic sight having an objective lens 6 and an eyepiece having 5, S Jie, which is provided with a transparent optical channel. 其他实施方式也能作为光学望远镜的附加或另选方案，具有位于操作单元4或者外部控制单元上的数字目镜和/或屏幕显示器。 Other embodiments can also be used as an additional or alternative optical telescope program, with digital eyepiece located on the operating unit or the external control unit 4 and / or screen display. 瞄准单元3具有目标轴线9,该目标轴线在理想情况下精确地垂直于倾斜轴线测角仪的倾斜轴线8,该倾斜轴线继而垂直于坚直测角仪的坚直对准的坚轴7。 Aiming unit 3 has a target axis 9, the target axis in the ideal case exactly perpendicular to the inclined axis tilt axis goniometer 8, then the tilt axis perpendicular to the straight goniometer Kennedy Kennedy Kennedy axis aligned straight 7. 三个轴线因此至少彼此近似地正交并且目标轴线9能相对于基部绕两个轴线移动。 Therefore, at least approximately three axes orthogonal to each other and the axis of the target with respect to the base portion 9 can move about two axes. 在目标轴线9的方向上， 利用瞄准单元3中的光电子测角仪执行距离测量，该光电子测角仪的光学轴线在理想的情况下对应于作为目标线l〇z的目标轴线9。 In the direction of the target axis 9, the use of targeting unit 3 photoelectron goniometer distance measurement is performed, the photoelectron optical axis goniometer in the ideal case corresponds to the target line l〇z target axis 9. 距该轴线布置的任何可能误差和偏差被认为是仪器误差，该仪器误差在测量期间必须被考虑以获得正确的结果。 Any possible errors and deviations from the axis of the arrangement is believed to be the instrument errors, the instrument during the measurement error must be considered in order to get the correct results. 多个这些误差能由所谓的两位置测量来建立，从这些误差能确定用于进一步测量的测量结果的数字校正的校准参数，如在装置手册中详细地描述的。 More of these errors can be established by a so-called two position measurement, the error can be determined from the measurement results for the measurement of the further digital correction calibration parameters, as described in detail in the apparatus handbook.
 因此，装置11能利用两个测角器和测距仪在极坐标中测绘瞄准的目标物体。  Thus, the device 11 can take advantage of two goniometer and rangefinder in polar coordinates mapping aimed at the target object. 极坐标还能随后被转换成其他坐标系统，或者基于此能进行更复杂的测绘任务和计算，这些任务和计算能例如通过装置内的数字计算机或利用外部计算机，借助操作单元4以受控的方式来进行。 Polar can then be converted to other coordinate systems, or can be based on this mapping more complex tasks and calculations, these tasks and calculations can, for example by a digital computer or by an external computer device within the operating unit 4 is controlled by means of manner.
 光电子测距仪在所示示例中同轴地实施，即，发射的光辐射l〇z的光束路径和由装置11接收的光辐射l〇y的光束路径具有至少近似共用的光学轴线，该光学轴线在理想情况下还与目标轴线9重合。  optoelectronic rangefinder coaxially In the illustrated example embodiment, i.e., the emitted light beam path and the beam path of the radiation l〇z received by the light radiation apparatus 11 having at least approximately l〇y a common optical axis , the optical axis in the ideal case also coincides with the target axis 9. 基本要求是，至少确保接收器的光学轴线10y在发射机的目标线ΙΟζ上对准，使得接收器的视野记录发射机在目标物体上的光点。 The basic requirement is that at least ensure that the receiver of the optical axis aligned on the transmitter 10y goal line ΙΟζ, so that the receiver transmitter vision recording spot on the target object.
 所示实施方式是光学测绘装置11，该光学测绘装置11具有用于设立该装置11的基部1以及瞄准单元3,该瞄准单元能相对于基部1绕两个轴线7和8旋转，这两个轴线设置有测角器。  embodiment shown is an optical mapping device 11, the optical mapping device 11 has set up a base for the device 11 1 and the sighting unit 3, the aiming unit 7 and 8 with respect to the rotation base 1 about two axes, These two axes are provided goniometer. 瞄准单元3具有用于瞄准待被测绘的目标物体40的目标轴线9并且具有用于沿待被测绘的目标物体40的方向发射光辐射10的第一光束路径ΙΟζ，以及用于通过光电子接收元件接收从目标物体40反射的光辐射10的分量的第二光束路径10y。 Direction aiming unit 3 has been used for aiming to be the target object mapping target axis 40 of 9 and has been mapping to be used along the target object 40 emits light radiation first beam path 10 ΙΟζ, and for receiving element by photoelectron 40 receives the reflected light from the target object 10 of the second radiation component beam path 10y.
 下面说明的根据本发明的测绘装置的实施方式特别是描述了下面简要概括的方面。  The following description of the particular aspects described briefly outlined below mapping apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
 光学元件30能具有多个沿着容积主体的周向的由电激活信号激活的最终控制元件，特别是至少用于，优选地为八个或更多个控制元件。  The optical element 30 can have a plurality of the volume of the body along the circumferential direction of the electrical activation signal from the activation of the final control element, in particular for at least, preferably eight or more control elements. 光学元件30能实施为使得其光学折射特性可变，使得相关的光束路径的光学轴线的偏转的变化能由电激活信号来执行，其中特别是光学信号能利用偏转的变化在基准路径和测量路径之间转换。 The optical element 30 such that it can be implemented as a variable optical refraction properties, such that deflection of the optical axis of the associated changes in the beam path can be performed by electrical activation signal, in particular the use of the optical signal can be deflected wherein changes in the reference path and measurement path between conversions.
 此外，光学元件30能实施为使得其光学折射特性可变，使得相关的光束路径的轴向聚集的变化能由电激活信号来执行，其中特别是聚集能在发散和会聚之间变化。  In addition, the optical element 30 can be implemented so that the optical refraction characteristic variable, so that the axial-related changes in the beam path of aggregation can be performed by electrical activation signal, which in particular can gather between divergent and convergent changes .
 测绘装置11能具有光电子测距仪，并且引导测距仪的光辐射的光束路径能具有这样的光学兀件。 Beam path  mapping device 11 can have photoelectron rangefinder, rangefinder and optical radiation guide can have such optical Wu member.
 测绘装置11能具有自动目标检测，并且引导目标检测的光辐射的光束路径能具有这样的光学元件。 Beam path  mapping device 11 can have automatic target detection, target detection and guide the optical radiation can have such an optical element.
 光学元件30能布置在第一光束路径中，其中，随着光学折射特性的变化能进行静态和/或动态目标线修改。  The optical element 30 can be arranged in the first beam path, wherein, as the change in the optical refractive properties can be static and / or dynamic modification target line.
 例如，能利用静态目标线修改校准目标轴线的对准。  For example, to modify the alignment of the target line with a static calibration target axis.
 测绘装置11能具有用于识别目标物体上的光辐射的入射点的光学传感器元件， 并且光学元件的激活信号的调节能基于传感器元件的分析来执行，使得入射点相对于目标轴线的形状和/或位置对应于设定点值。  Mapping device 11 can have an optical sensor element for optical radiation incident point on the recognition target object, and adjustment of the optical element activation signal based on the analysis of the sensor element can be performed so that the point of incidence with respect to the axis of the target shape and / or position corresponds to the set point value.
 根据本发明，用于测绘目标物体40的方法因此能利用光学测绘装置来执行，设立装置的基部，通过相对于基部绕两个轴线旋转瞄准单元利用瞄准单元的目标轴线来瞄准目标物体，这两个轴线设置有测角器。  According to the present invention, a method for mapping the target object 40 can thus be performed using an optical mapping device, set up the base unit, relative to the base by rotation about two axes aiming unit to aim the target utilization unit to aim at the target object axis It is provided with two axes goniometer.
 利用在目标物体的方向上沿着第一光束路径发射光辐射，并且通过光电子接收元件接收光辐射沿着第二光束路径从目标物体反射的分量来执行瞄准。  The use of the target object in the direction of the emitted light beam radiation along the first path, and the light-receiving element receives the radiation beam along a second path component reflected from the target object is performed by photoelectron aim.
 根据本发明，利用位于光束路径中的至少一个路径中的光学元件的光学折射特性在至少两个非一致方向上的变化来执行第一和/或第二光束路径的修改。  According to the invention, at least one path is located in the beam path of the optical refractive optical elements characteristic in at least two non-uniform change in direction to execute modifications of the first and / or second beam path. 这通过光学透明的可变形的容积主体的界面在至少两个非一致的方向上朝向具有偏离该容积主体的光学折射率的介质的不同变形来执行，该变形借助于多个电激活信号来控制。 This is achieved by optically transparent deformable body interface on the volume of the at least two non-identical direction toward having different deformation deviates from the refractive index of the volume of the main body of the optical medium is performed, the deformation by means of a plurality of electrical signal to control activation .
 修改能被执行为呈发射的光辐射的不同发散角的光束整形的形式的静态目标线修改。  modification can be performed in the form of light emitted by different radiation divergence angle of the beam shaping static target line changes.
 光辐射的发射能利用至少两个波长，特别是一个可见波长和一个不可见波长来执行，例如利用激光光源，通过该激光光源两个波长能由单个部件来发射。  emitting light radiation energy utilizing at least two wavelengths, particularly a visible and an invisible wavelengths to perform wavelength, e.g., using a laser light, the laser light source by means of two wavelengths can be emitted by a single member. 作为静态目标线修改的修改能使第一和/或第二波长的光辐射相对于目标轴线对准。 As a static target line changes or modifications to make the first light radiation and / or second wavelength axis is aligned relative to the target.
 修改在该情况下能执行为静态目标线修改，使得包含光学元件的光束路径的距离适应聚集被执行，所述静态目标线修改特别是具有用于非协作目标物体的第一光束发散， 该第一光束发散小于协作目标物体的第二光束发散。  In this modified case can be executed as a static modification target line, so that the distance of the beam path comprising an optical element adapted aggregation is performed, in particular to modify the static target line having a first non-cooperative target object for the beam divergence The first beam divergence less than a second cooperative target object beam divergence.
 修改能被执行为静态目标线修改，使得包含光学元件的光束路径的聚集的适应被执行，从而使得光电子接收元件的辐照度保持至少近似恒定。  modify the target line can be performed as a static modification, so that the optical element comprises adaptation aggregated beam path is performed so that the irradiance optoelectronic receiving member is kept at least approximately constant.
 修改还能被执行为动态目标线修改，该动态目标线修改具有折射特性的动态变化，降低光辐射的斑点效应，和/或使光辐射的调制波前平滑，特别是具有折射特性的周期变化。  modifications can be performed dynamically modify the goal line, the goal line dynamically modify the dynamic changes have refractive properties, reducing speckle effect of optical radiation, and / or modulation of optical radiation wavefront smooth, especially those with refractive properties The periodic variation.
 修改能被执行为动态目标线修改，该动态目标线修改利用光束路径在一区域中关于设定点目标方向到目标物体的扫描运动，并且所述动态目标线修改尤其是其中通过在测绘扫描运动中测绘多个点来确定目标物体的边缘或确定目标物体的表面相对于设定点目标方向的倾斜。  modification can be performed dynamically modify the goal line, the goal line to modify the use of dynamic beam path in an area set point on the target direction to the scanning motion of the target object, and the dynamic modification particular the target line through Surveying scanning motion mapping to determine the number of points or edges of the target object is determined relative to the surface of the target object is inclined setpoint target direction.
 修改能被执行为与轴线中的至少一个轴线的运动同步的动态目标线修改，特别是其中光束路径被修改使得该光束路径由光电子接收元件上的静态接收孔对准。  dynamic modification can be performed with the target line of at least one axis of motion axis synchronous modifications, in particular the beam path is modified such that the photoelectron beam path by a receiving hole receiving the static member is aligned.
 本发明还涉及计算机程序产品，该计算机程序产品具有程序代码或者计算机数据信号，该程序代码被存储在机器可读载体中，该计算机数据信号被实施为电磁波，用于执行这里所述的方法，特别是其中程序代码执行在根据本发明的测绘装置中的用于目标线修改的光学元件的激活，特别是其中目标线修改借助程序代码借助参照第一光束路径的识别的调节来执行。  The present invention further relates to a computer program product, the computer program product having a program code, or computer data signal, the program code is stored on a machine-readable carrier, the computer data signal is embodied as an electromagnetic wave, for carrying out herein The method, in particular the program code is executed in accordance with the mapping device of the present invention to modify the target line for the activation of the optical element, in particular by means of modifying the target line identification code by means of a first reference beam path adjustment is performed .
 图2a示出了根据本发明的测绘装置11的瞄准单元3的第一实施方式的内部结构的示例。  Figure 2a shows an example of the internal configuration of apparatus according to the present invention is aimed at mapping unit 11 of the first embodiment of the three way. 该示例中所示的部件和其布置待被认为是只是示意性的并且还能在其他实施方式中变化或者其部件能被省除、补充或移位到装置主体2中。 Parts and arranged to be shown in this example is considered to be merely illustrative and can change or its parts can save except, supplement or shifted to the apparatus body 2 in the other embodiments.
 装置11如图1所示配备有透射光通道，即，它具有目镜5,通过目镜进入物镜6的光能被观察到。 With  means 11 as shown in Figure 1 has a light transmission path, i.e., having the eyepiece 5, 6 of the objective lens through the eyepiece into the light can be observed. 另选地或另外地，观察图像的记录能由照相机13执行，并且该图像的观察能在监视器或显示屏上被执行，该监视器或显示屏能位于物镜5中、装置11上，或其外部。 Alternatively or additionally, the observed image recorded by the camera 13 can be executed, and the image observation can be performed on a monitor or display, the monitor or display can be positioned in the objective lens 5, the apparatus 11, or outside thereof. 观察的光学轴线在所示的情况下对应于装置11的目标轴线9,在观察期间通过瞄准辅助器，例如十字准线等可以使目标轴线清楚。 The optical axis of the observation in the case shown corresponds to the apparatus 11 of the target axis 9, during the observation period by targeting aids, e.g., crosshairs, etc., may clear the target axis.
 此外，光电子测距仪（EDM)的几个基本部件被示出。  In addition, optoelectronic rangefinder (EDM) of a few basic components are shown. 装置11的监控单元100连接至EDM控制器59,该控制器控制经由激励级57由光源55发射的光学测量辐射。 Monitoring unit 100 is connected to the apparatus 11 of the controller 59 EDM, which controls via a driver stage 57 of the optical radiation is measured by the light source 55 emitted. 光源55能被具体化半导体光源，例如，具体化为LED或呈固态激光器、纤维激光器或者半导体激光器或者其组合的形式的激光光源。 A semiconductor light source 55 can be embodied, for example, embodied as an LED or solid state laser, a fiber laser or a semiconductor laser or a laser light source in the form of a combination. 在透射光束路径中能够存在一个单个光源或多个光源，所述光源能具有例如不同的光学特性，诸如波长、偏光等。 In the transmitted beam path can exist a single light source or multiple light sources can have different optical characteristics e.g., such as wavelength, polarization and the like. 如下面描述的，还能使用半导体激光元件，借助该半导体激光元件能发射一个以上的光波长。 As described below, but also the use of a semiconductor laser device, by means of the semiconductor laser device capable of emitting more than one wavelength of light.
 在这里所示的实施方式中，根据本发明的液体透镜30设置在装置11的发射的光束路径中，该液体透镜被实施为具有在光信号的波长范围内可选地是透明的液体的元件， 并且该液体具有至少一个朝向具有偏离液体的光学折射率的介质的界面。  In the embodiment illustrated herein, in accordance with the present invention, the liquid lens 30 is provided in the beam path of the transmitting apparatus 11, which is implemented as a liquid lens having, optionally in the wavelength range of the light signals is transparent component liquid, and the liquid having at least one interface towards the liquid having deviated from the refractive index of the optical medium. 界面借助于多个电激活信号可变形，使得因此元件的光学折射特性能在至少两个非一致的方向上不同地变化。 Interface by means of a plurality of electrical activation signal deformable, so that the refractive properties of the optical element and therefore can vary in different non-uniform in at least two directions. 然而，如果发生在至少两个非一致的方向上的均匀的变化，则横向辐射的发散角也能利用根据本发明的液体透镜30来设定。 However, in case of non-uniform in at least two directions of the uniform change, the lateral radiation divergence angle can also use the liquid lens according to the present invention 30 is set.
 目标线的修改能利用液体透镜来执行。 Modifying  the target line can be performed by the liquid lens. 在所示的情况下，它是距离测量的。 In the case shown, it is the distance measurements.
 根据本发明，液体透镜30还能被设置在例如目标照明辐射的发射的光束路径中， 例如用于自动目标识别（ATR)，从而以与距离测量中所述的相似的方式修改其目标线。  According to the present invention, the liquid lens 30 can be arranged in the beam path such as target illumination radiation emitted, for example, for automatic target recognition (ATR), thereby measuring the distance in a manner similar to the modification of its goal line.
 在存在多个光源55时，根据本发明还能应用一个单个或多个液体透镜30,特别是以使它们的光学轴线重合或者以进行下面详细地描述的目标线修改中的另一个修改。  in the presence of a plurality of light sources 55, according to the present invention can also apply to a single or a plurality of liquid lens 30, in particular so that their optical axes are coincident or to be described in detail below another target line modification amend. 例如，红外光源能被设置为用于距离测量，并且可见范围内的导向光束能设置用于使IR目标线在目标物体40上可视化，该IR目标线能利用目标线修改通过根据本发明的液体透镜30 自动地达到对应，而不必进行机械对准。 For example, infrared light can be provided for distance measurement, and the guide in the visible range of the IR beam can be used to set the target line at the visual target object 40, the IR target line target line can be modified by the use of the liquid according to the present invention. 30 correspond to the lens is automatically reached, without having to mechanical alignment. 在所示的实施方式中，ATR光源12的光束路径具有液体透镜30,该液体透镜由虚线示出，根据本发明该液体透镜能另选地或可选地另外设置。 In the embodiment illustrated, ATR beam path of the light source 12 having a liquid lens 30, the liquid lens is shown by dashed lines, can alternatively be provided additionally or alternatively to the liquid lens according to the present invention. 用于目标轴线可视化的上述一个第二光源为了能理解而未示出。 It said a second light source for visualizing the target axis are not shown in order to understand.
 此外，用于测量辐射的基准光分量l〇r被示出，其借助装置内的基准部分被引导， 并且其还能利用液体透镜30以目标线修改的形式根据本发明被引导到测量光接收器56 (如果需要)。  In addition, for measuring the reference light component radiated l〇r is shown, by means of which the reference portion is guided within the device, and it can make use of the liquid lens 30 is a modified form of the target line according to the present invention is directed to measuring the optical receiver 56 (if needed).
 因为，如所述，它是同轴构造的测距仪，因此测量辐射的光束路径（以及如这里示出的光源12的目标照明辐射)被反射在物镜6的光学轴线上并且因此被反射在装置的目标轴线9上。  Because, as described, it is a range finder of a coaxial structure, and therefore the measurement beam path of the radiation (as herein shown and target illumination light source 12 of radiation) is reflected on the optical axis of the objective lens 6 and therefore It is reflected on the target axis of the device 9. 如所述的，在这种情况下能发生偏差，该偏差根据本发明能利用液体透镜30以目标线修改的形式被补偿。 As described, in this case the deviation can occur, according to the present invention, the deviation of the liquid lens 30 to be able to use a modified form of the target line is compensated. 测量光或其至少一部分现在从目标物体40被反射。 Or at least a portion of the measuring light is reflected from the target object is now 40. 在所示的情况下，目标物体40被实施为回射器，然而，目标物体40还能是自然目标，例如，墙壁等。 In the case shown, the target object 40 is implemented as a retroreflector, however, the target object 40 is also a natural target, e.g., walls and the like.
 反射束路径l〇y被偏转到EDM的接收元件56 (例如，光电二极管）上，该偏转能例如借助波长选择偏转来执行。  path of the reflected beam is deflected to the EDM l〇y receiving member 56 (e.g., photodiode), which deflection can e.g. be performed by means of a wavelength selective deflection. 接收的光信号因此被调节为块58中的电信号，并且从装置11 到目标物体40的距离由距离测量单元59来确定，该距离测量单元例如呈运行时间测量、相位测量、信号形状分析或这些原理的组合的形式。 Accordingly the received optical signal is adjusted to an electrical signal in the block 58, and the distance from the device 11 to the target object 40 is determined by the distance measurement unit 59, for example, the distance measurement unit was run time measurement, phase measurement, analysis or signal shape These principles form a combination.
 接收光束路径还偏转到照相机13上，照相机例如具有C⑶或CMOS图像传感器，而且或附加地作为RM传感器，并且还偏转到目镜5。  Also receiving the beam path deflected onto the camera 13, such as a camera or a CMOS image sensor having C⑶, and RM, or additionally as a sensor, and further deflected to the eyepiece 5.
 图2b示出了根据本发明的测绘装置11的瞄准单元3的第二实施方式的内部结构的示例。  Figure 2b shows an example of the internal configuration of apparatus according to the present invention is aimed at mapping unit 11 of a second embodiment of the method 3. 与图2a相反，不仅能利用液体透镜30进行目标线10z的方向适应，而且还例如能利用这里所示的偏转和耦合镜来执行透射光束在光学基准路径lOr上的偏转。 Figure 2a contrast, not only by the liquid lens 30 in the direction of the target line 10z adaptation, but also for example, can use the deflecting mirror and the coupling shown here to perform the transmission on the optical beam deflection lOr of the reference path.
 图2c示出了根据本发明的测绘装置11的瞄准单元3的第三实施方式的内部结构的示例。  Figure 2c shows an example of the internal configuration of apparatus according to the present invention is aimed at mapping unit 11 of the third embodiment 3 of the method. 与在前图相反，液体透镜30这里布置在测距仪的接收通道中。 In contrast with the previous diagram, where the liquid lens 30 is arranged in the receive path finder.
 图3a示出了根据本发明的光辐射10的修改的示例。  Figure 3a shows an example of a modification of the present invention according to the light radiation 10. 液体透镜30的实施方式被示出，借助于该液体透镜光辐射10被改变。 Embodiment liquid lens 30 is shown, by means of the optical radiation of the liquid lens 10 is changed. 在所示的示例中，发生发射束的激活相关轴向变化（即，焦点变化)，例如，这是因为至少近似均匀的激活沿着透镜周向被执行。 Activate the relevant changes in the axial direction in the example shown, the occurrence of the transmitted beam (i.e., focus change), for example, because the activation of at least approximately uniform along the lens periphery to be executed. 光束直径与透镜直径的比例未必总是被示出接近这里图中的实际，尤其在实际实施的情况下，能发生通过光束截面的液体透镜表面积的较高使用水平。 The ratio of the diameter of the beam diameter of the lens is not always shown in the figure closer to the actual here, especially in the case of practical embodiment, the use of higher levels can occur through the liquid lens of the beam cross-sectional surface area.
 图3b以俯视图示出了作为在光学轴线的方向上的元件的液体透镜30。  Figure 3b illustrates a top view in the direction of the optical axis 30 of the liquid lens elements. 示出四个最终控制元件31a、31b、31c、31d，利用这四个最终控制元件，元件的光学折射特性能通过电激活信号在方向33a和33b上不同地变化。 Shows four final control elements 31a, 31b, 31c, 31d, use the four final control elements, elements of the optical refractive properties by electrical activation signal varies in different directions 33a and 33b. 位于边缘的箭头表示作用在液体透镜中的液体上的力，该力引起界面63g的变形。 Located on the edge of the arrows indicate the role of force in the liquid lens on the liquid, the force caused by the deformation of the interface 63g. 在所示的示例中，光辐射10的光束形状10a通过激活被改变成光束形状l〇b，这是因为液体透镜（30)的液体透镜主体能借助于多个电激活信号变形，使得光学折射特性因此能在至少两个非一致的方向上不同地变化。 In the example shown, the shape of the light beam 10 of radiation 10a is changed by activating l〇b beam shape, because liquid lens (30) of the liquid lens body can be deformed by means of a plurality of electrical activation signal, so that the optical refraction Therefore, different characteristics can be changed in at least two non-identical directions. 作为一示例示出的偏转导致沿水平和坚直方向的不同的折射力。 As an example illustrating the horizontal deflection cause different refractive power and strong straight direction. 已分配的焦距因此是不同的，并且透镜具有像散效应。 Thus allocated different focal length, and the lens having astigmatic effect.
 图3c示出了另一激活(参见箭头)，其中光辐射10的光学轴线在其方向上发生了变化，该光福射由用于输入光束的偏移圆l〇a和用于输出光束的偏移圆10c表不。  Figure 3c shows a further activation (see arrow), wherein the optical axis of the optical radiation 10 changes in its direction, the light emitted by the blessing of the offset for the input beam and a circular l〇a 10c circular output beam offset table is not. 折射特性的不同变化在彼此正交的方向33a和33b上这里所示的实施方式中发生。 Changes occur in different refractive properties of the embodiment shown in the mutually orthogonal directions 33a and 33b here. 在立体角段，即， 在两个彼此正交的空间方向上辐射的光学轴线的偏转的方向变化能因此通过激励器31a、 31b、31c、31d彼此独立地被执行。 In the solid angle section, i.e., the direction of deflection in two mutually perpendicular spatial directions of the optical axis of the radiation can therefore change 31a, 31b, 31c, 31d is performed independently of each other by the actuator. 在该激活期间，透镜中心向上移位并且从轴线离开，这导致楔形效应，光束在该方向上被偏转。 During this activation, the lens center axis from the left and upward displacement, which results in a wedge effect, the beam is deflected in that direction.
 液体透镜（30)的激活能通过静态控制或激活信号的动态调节来执行，其中激活能由测绘装置11的控制单元的数字计算机上的计算机程序来执行。  activating liquid lens (30) can dynamically adjust the static control or activation signal to perform, which can be performed by a computer program digital computer control unit mapping device 11 on activation.
 图4a和图4b示出了液体透镜的另一实施方式，该液体透镜具有八个沿着其周向的最终控制元件。  Figures 4a and 4b show another embodiment of the liquid lens, the liquid lens has eight along the circumferential direction of the final control element. 说明书中这里示出的四个或八个最终控制元件待只被认为是示例并且该数量能包含从三个直到基本上较高的值，这取决于对液体透镜30的自由开口上方折射能力的可变性和分布的要求。 Specification shown here four or eight final control element to be considered only as an example and this number can contain from three until substantially higher value, depending on the free liquid lens over the opening 30 refractive power variability and distribution requirements.
 这些最终控制元件能如上所述例如根据电润湿、力感应液体传输或其他原理来操作，这些原理特别是在所引用的文献中被说明，其中激活最终始终以电学的形式发生。  The final control element can be as described above, for example based on electrowetting, force sensing fluid transport or other operating principle, these principles are described in particular in the cited literature, which has always been the ultimate form of electrical activation occurs. 液体透镜，即，液体或橡胶弹性透镜主体的界面63g的几何形状和对准被改变，并且由玻璃或固定形状的塑料制成的刚性透镜例如不移位或倾斜。 Liquid lens, i.e., a liquid or rubber-elastic lens body interface 63g geometry and alignment is changed, and rigidly fixed lens made of glass or plastic, for example made of shape does not shift or tilt. 通过根据本发明设置的多个最终控制元件，界面63g的形状，并且因此其折射能力和分布能以受控方式在元件的孔上方沿液体透镜30的元件平面的不同方向33a、33b、33c和33d不同地变化。 By the final controlling element, the interface according to the present invention, a plurality of set shapes 63g, and thus its refractive power and the distribution of energy in a controlled manner in different directions along the liquid above the aperture of the lens element 30 of the planar member 33a, 33b, 33c, and Changes differently 33d. 因此，不仅由液体透镜主体的圆形对称曲率变化引起的焦距适应，而且光辐射能根据本发明以大大变化的方式被修改，如下面参照测绘装置中根据本发明的应用说明的。 Thus, not only the change in focal length of the circularly symmetric lens body caused by the curvature of the liquid adaptation, and the optical radiation varies greatly according to the present invention is modified manner, the mapping device described in the application in accordance with the present invention as described below with reference. 电激活单元32操作相应的最终控制元件31a至31h，这由连接线示出。 Electrical activation unit 32 operates the corresponding final control elements 31a to 31h, which is shown by the connecting wires. 激励器不必必须以作为段的圆形对称形式沿着透镜边缘附接，如这里以简化形式示出的。 Actuator does not have to be in the form of a segment of a circular symmetric lens along the attachment edge, such as shown here in simplified form.
 液体透镜30的激活允许透镜，S卩，尤其是具有不同的折射率的两个介质之间的光折射界面63g以受控方式变形，其中根据本发明，在至少两个不同的正交于入射辐射的光学轴线的方向上，即，或多或少地在液体透镜的元件平面中，界面63g的不同变形能利用多个激活来获得。  Activation of the liquid lens allows the lens 30, S Jie, in particular having a photorefractive interface between two media of different refractive indices 63g deform in a controlled manner, according to the present invention, wherein, in at least two different positive the direction of the optical axis of the incident radiation in the cross, that is, more or less in the plane of the liquid lens element, the interface 63g is activated using a plurality of different deformation can be obtained. 通过液体透镜的电极的合适的电激活，在光学成像或光束整形(例如像散或慧差）中的误差能附加地被减小或消除。 Suitable electrode through the liquid lens activation, the error can additionally be reduced or eliminated in optical imaging or beam shaping (such as astigmatism or coma). 然而，作为光学元件的整个液体透镜不在其位置中偏移或者在装置中对准，而是固定地安装。 However, the liquid lens optics as a whole, which is not aligned or offset positions in the apparatus, but is fixedly mounted. 这导致在测绘装置中光束路径的根据本发明的可修改性，特别是激光目标线的可修改性。 This resulted in the mapping device can be modified according to the present invention, particularly a laser target line can modify the beam path. 因此，不同的折射特性在这至少两个方向上可控，并且因此光辐射可以歧管方式修改，如在测绘装置的改进的情况下根据本发明被应用。 Therefore, different refractive properties on the at least two steerable and thus optical radiation can modify the manifold ways, such as to be applied in the case of an improved mapping device according to the present invention. 然而，机械装置结构是不复杂的，而是相反，与利用其他装置的相同功能性的可能实施(如果需要）相比，甚至能简化并且所需部件的数量也较少。 However, the mechanical structure of the apparatus is not complicated, but on the contrary, with the same functionality and other device embodiments may (if desired), compared even simplified and the number of components required less.
 除了所示的激活端子，还能更进一步存在用于确定当前透镜形状的传感器端子。  In addition to activating the terminal shown, it can further be used to determine the presence of the current sensor terminal lens shape. 这些传感器端子能例如被实施为用于电容性确定液体透镜的当前成形的电极，例如作为沿着透镜周向的另外的段。 These sensors can for example be implemented as a terminal for the capacitive electrodes to determine the current liquid lens formed, for example, as an additional segment the lens along the circumferential direction. 除了透镜的这样的直接形状确定，透镜的当前光学折射特性也能由相应的传感器检测。 In addition to the direct determination of the shape of this lens, the current optical refraction of the lens can be detected by a corresponding sensor.
 图5示出了液体透镜30的实施方式的第一示例，其修改了根据本发明的光学测绘装置中的光辐射10。  FIG. 5 shows a first exemplary embodiment of the liquid lens 30, which modifies the radiation 10 optical mapping apparatus of the present invention, the light. 一方面，折射特性能利用合适的激活被改变，使得光束形状以受控方式从l〇a变到10f，即，光束的发散被适应，这是因为发生了液体透镜30的焦距适应。 On the one hand, the refractive properties can be changed using a suitable activation, in a controlled manner so that the beam shape changed from l〇a to 10f, namely, the beam divergence is adaptation, this is because of a liquid lens focal length adaptation (30).
 另一方面，液体透镜30的折射特性能利用合适的激活被改变，使得光学轴线的光束方向以受控的方式从l〇a偏转到另一空间方向（如由底部箭头所示的)，例如，偏转到10c、10d、10e。  On the other hand, the refractive properties of liquid lens 30 can be changed using a suitable activation so that the direction of the optical axis of the light beam in a controlled manner to deflect from l〇a another spatial direction (as indicated by the bottom arrow ), for example, deflected 10c, 10d, 10e.
 液体透镜30被构造成圆形对称并且这里以剖面被示出。  Liquid lens 30 is circularly symmetric and constructed in cross-section is shown here. 在该示例中，透镜主体包含两种不可混溶的液体60和63,这两种液体具有不同的光学折射率，使得横向光辐射10 的光束路径在其界面63g处被修改。 In this example, the lens body comprising two immiscible liquids 60 and 63, the two liquids having different optical refractive indices, such that the transverse light path of the radiation beam 10 is modified at its interface 63g. 另选地，在两种液体之间也能设置薄的透明膜。 Alternatively, the liquid can also be provided between the two thin transparent film. 如果两种液体具有至少大约相同的特定密度，则对界面63g的形状的重力影响能在很大程度上被排除，这尤其是在具有可旋转和/或可枢转瞄准单元的测绘装置的情况下简化了其可应用性，而液体透镜不必由激励器根据其空间位置来重新对准，以便保持其特性不变。 If two liquids having the same specific density of at least about, the effects of gravity on the shape of the interface 63g can largely be excluded, especially in this case having a rotatable and / or pivotable element mapping apparatus aiming By simplifying its applicability, and liquid lens having to re-align the actuator in accordance with its spatial position in order to maintain their characteristics unchanged. 如所提及的，代替液体(例如，水、油、酒精等)，还能使用处于可塑性变形或橡胶弹性状态的聚合物(例如，硅酮、弹性体、硅酮橡胶等)。 As mentioned, instead of the liquid (e.g., water, oil, alcohol, etc.), but also used in a plastically deformable or polymers (e.g., silicone, elastomer, silicone rubber or the like) of rubber-elastic state. 为了激活，附接有电极61和62,借助于电极，根据电润湿的原理，界面的几何形状能被改变。 To activate, attached electrodes 61 and 62, by means of the electrodes, according to the principle of electrowetting, the geometric shape of the interface can be changed. 然而，除了该作用原理外，能使用其他激励器，其中界面的变形能由电信号直接或间接造成。 However, in addition to the action principle, but you can use other actuators, which deform the interface can be directly or indirectly caused by the electrical signal. 例如，已知的原理(诸如借助于磁性线圈移动的活塞或弹簧）能被应用，其改变液体透镜30的外部区域中的限制容积。 For example, it is known principles (such as a magnetic coil by means of a piston or movable spring) can be applied, which change the external area of the liquid lens 30 limits the volume. 激励器能沿着液体透镜的周向被分成多段，每一段均能被单独地激活，并且通过所述段，界面的相对于液体透镜的光学轴线的无旋转对称变形是可产生的，使得折射特性能从那些传统的、理想透镜变化成横向光辐射的更复杂的修改例。 Actuator can be divided into along the periphery of the liquid lens multi-segment, each section can be individually activated and through the segments, with the interface for non-rotationally symmetric deformation of the optical axis of the liquid lens is produced, so that the refractive characteristics from those of traditional, lens changes the ideal lateral optical radiation into more complex modified example. 通过相应的激活，利用根据本发明的液体透镜30,除了焦距变化以外，例如，离开光的光学轴线的角偏转、球象差、像散、慧差、或另外的光学误差也能被故意地引入或校正，这将结合测绘装置11中其可用性在下面进行说明。 By activating the appropriate use of the liquid lens 30 according to the present invention, in addition to the focal length changes, for example, the angle of the optical axis of the left light deflection, the ball aberration, astigmatism, coma, or other optical errors can also be deliberately introduction or correction, which will combine its availability mapping device 11 will be described below.
 图6a至图6c以剖面图示出了用于测绘装置中的光辐射10的根据本发明的修改例的液体透镜30的实施方式的第二示例。  Figures 6a to 6c to a cross-sectional diagram illustrating a second exemplary embodiment of the liquid lens 30 according to a modification of the present invention is used for mapping device 10 of optical radiation. 所示的液体透镜30例如能包括这里成一排示出的单个元件的二维矩阵。 Liquid lens 30 shown here, for example, can comprise a two-dimensional matrix shown in a row a single element. 图像平面74或物体平面73被分别示出地液体透镜30的两侧。 The image plane 74 or the object plane 73 is shown on both sides to the liquid lens 30, respectively. 液体透镜30由第一液体部分30t和第二液体部分30f构成，该第一液体部分用于获得光学楔形效应，该第二液体部分通过固态中部30m与第一液体部分分开，用于焦距适应。 Liquid lens portion 30 by a first liquid and a second liquid portion 30f 30t constituting the first liquid portion for obtaining an optical wedge effect, the second liquid with the first liquid portion 30m separated by a solid central portion, adapted to the focal length. 液体透镜30如所示被分成单个子段，这些子段的光学轴线由在透镜和图像/物体平面之间所示的三角形示出。 Liquid lens 30 as shown is divided into individual sub-segments, the optical axis of the sub-segments in the triangle between the lens and the image / object plane is shown in Fig.
 图6a示出了没有激活的液体透镜30的基本位置。  Figure 6a shows the basic position of the liquid lens 30 is not active in. 在图像平面和物体平面中用虚线标记的区域如所示分别在彼此上成像。 As shown in the area with the image plane and the object plane in the markings were dashed at each other on imaging.
 图6b示出了用于通过第一液体部分30t的变形使光辐射的角偏转的激活31。  Figure 6b shows a first liquid by the deformation of the optical portion 30t of the angular deflection of the activation radiation 31. 基本位置由点线示出。 The basic position is shown by dotted lines. 光辐射的光学轴线的角偏转因此由旋转的三角形造成。 Optical radiation angular deflection optical axis is thus caused by the rotation of the triangle.
 图6c示出了用于通过第二液体部分30f的变形使光辐射的焦距变化的激活31。  Figure 6c shows a liquid portion 30f through the second modification of the focal length changing optical radiation 31 activation. 基本位置由点线示出。 The basic position is shown by dotted lines. 因此示出了被压缩的三角形和更靠近的物体平面73。 So shows a compressed triangle and the object plane closer to 73.
 在图6b和图6c中，所有的子段都被共同激活，然而，它们还能以子组或单独地被激活，以获得光辐射的特定修改。  In Fig. 6b and 6c, all the sub-segments are activated together, however, they can in subgroups or individually activated to obtain specific modification of optical radiation. 显然也能进行来自两个图的两个光束修改的组合。 Obviously the two beams can be combined from the two graphs modified.
 图7a至图7c以剖面图示出了用于测绘装置中的光辐射10的根据本发明的修改的液体透镜30的实施方式的第三示例。  FIG. 7a to 7c in cross-section illustrating a third example embodiment 30 according to a modification of the present invention, the liquid lens for mapping device 10 of optical radiation. 液体透镜的实际液体30z的表面配备有光学微部件301，在所示示例中该光学微部件呈球形显微透镜的形式，然而，也能使用其他形式，例如， 位于包含透镜液体301的膜上的同心圆（菲涅耳光学器件)。 The actual liquid surface of the liquid lens 30z is equipped with a micro-optical component 301, illustrated in the example of the optical member in the form of micro-spherical microlens, however, other forms can also be used, e.g., a lens located in the liquid containing membrane 301 The concentric circles (Fresnel optics). 它例如能由这里成一排示出的或呈同心环结构的形式的微部件301的二维矩阵构成。 It can be made here, for example, shows a row of concentric ring structure or form micro components constituting the two-dimensional matrix 301.
 图7a示出了没有激活的液体30z的非变形基本位置，以及从其获得的光束路径。  Figure 7a shows a substantially non-deformed position is not active liquid 30z, and obtained from the beam path.
 图7b示出了激活31的第一示例，以及呈较短焦距的形式的光辐射的由此导致的修改。  Figure 7b shows a first example of activation 31, and modify the form of a short focal length optical radiation resulting.
 图7c示出了呈放大焦距的形式的激活31的第二示例。  Figure 7c shows a zoom focal length was 31 in the form of activation of the second example.
 除了所示的这些激活31以外，通过其他激活31还能获得光辐射10的更进一步的修改。  In addition to these 31 other than the activation obtain further light radiation 10 is also modified by other activation 31. 液体透镜30和其部件的几何形式也能被改变。 Geometric forms liquid lens 30 and its components can also be changed.
 下面将说明根据本发明可获得的更多的修改，这些修改能利用测绘装置中的液体透镜根据本发明进行。  The following will explain more modifications according to the present invention can be obtained, and these changes can take advantage of the mapping device in a liquid lens according to the present invention.
 图8a至图8i是具有能沿多个方向不同地变化的折射特性的根据本发明的目标线修改的示例，该目标线修改能利用液体透镜30在光束路径中进行，以提高测绘装置11的测量精度、校准能力和/或功能性。  FIG. 8a to 8i are capable of having a plurality of different directions along varying refraction characteristics according to an example of the present invention to modify the target line, which is able to modify the target line using a liquid lens in the beam path 30 in order to improve mapping Accuracy device 11, calibration capability and / or functionality. 因此能利用液体透镜的电激活造成呈从装置11发射的光辐射10的静态光束对准和/或动态光束转向的形式的所造成的目标线修改，而没有在装置11内进行刚性光学部件的机械运动和局部位移。 Therefore, using a liquid lens can be caused by electrical activation device 11 was radiated from the light emitted beam alignment 10 of the static and / or in the form of a dynamic beam steering caused by the modification of the target line, but no rigid optical components in the apparatus 11 mechanical motion and partial displacement.
 图8a示出了液体透镜30,利用该液体透镜，测距仪的光束路径经历呈相对于目标线的角偏转的形式的修改。  Figure 8a shows a liquid lens 30, utilizing the liquid lens, range finder beam path through the target line was with respect to the angle of deflection of the modified form. 在所示示例中，这用来测绘作为目标物体40的建筑物的边缘41，这是因为在边缘41上方紧接着周期性地来回扫描测量距离辐射，以便精确地检测该边缘。 In the illustrated example, this is used as a target object mapping edge 41 of the building 40, this is because the top edge 41 to scan back and forth immediately periodically measure the distance the radiation, in order to accurately detect the edge. 边缘41能例如在第一步骤中借助于装置11的视野中的图像识别被执行，此后，发生边缘41的上述详细的测绘。 View of the edge image recognition 41 can, for example by means of a device in a first step 11 is executed, and thereafter, the occurrence of the above detailed mapping edge 41. 边缘41还能附加地例如借助于装置11的倾斜轴线测角仪8中的伺服驱动被垂直于板平面扫描。 Goniometer axis tilt meter edge 41 can additionally, for example by means of a device 11 8 servo drive is perpendicular to the plane of the board scanning. 例如，可以借助图像处理自动地沿着边缘移动，同时距离测量光束连续地扫描边缘的横向轮廓。 For example, the image processing means is automatically moved along the edge, while the measuring beam is continuously scanned from the lateral edges of the contours.
 图8b示出了利用液体透镜30的光束路径的修改的示例，其中水平振荡扫描42和/或坚直振荡扫描43利用测距仪的光束10在装置11的观察区域49中在目标轴线9的区域中被执行。  FIG. 8b shows an example of a liquid lens changes the beam path 30, wherein the level of oscillation scanning 42 and / or strong vertical oscillation of the scanning beam by Distance 43 10 11 49 means the viewing area in the target Regional axis 9 is executed.
 图8c示出了在装置11的视野49中沿目标轴线9的方向利用区域44的平面扫描执行的光束路径10的修改的示例。  Figure 8c shows an example of the use of the modified beam path 11 in the direction of the field of view of the apparatus 49 along the axis 9 of the target area 44 of the scanning plane 10 is executed. 除了距作为目标物体待被测绘的表面的距离以外，例如，还能确定表面的相对于目标轴线9的倾斜。 Apart from being a target object to be surface mapping distance, for example, but also to determine the target surface is inclined with respect to axis 9.
 图8d示出了围绕实际目标轴线9的区域的利用圆扫描45的光束路径的修改的示例。  Figure 8d shows an example of the use of circular region around the actual target axis 9 of the scanning beam path 45 of the modification. 在目标物体上测量辐射10的相应的光束直径处，该光束直径还能根据本发明被修改， 目标轴线9也能被围绕(这里未示出）。 Measuring the radiation at the appropriate beam diameter on the target object 10, the beam diameter can be modified according to the present invention, the target can also be around the axis 9 (not shown here). 因此，例如，作为目标物体待被测绘的角部不仅能由图像分析，而且还由距离测量来表征，并且这些信息项目能用于在角部上对准装置11的目的。 Thus, for example, as the mapping target object is to be not only a corner portion by the image analysis, but also characterized by the distance measurement, and these items of information it can be used for the purpose on the corner portion 11 of the alignment means. 根据本发明，仅距离测量光束还能相对于实际的目标轴线9被横向移位(仍绕圈或静态地)，以便更精确地测绘其距离（并且减小斑点)，其中目标轴线9相对于距离测量光束的相应的角位移在分析中也能被考虑。 According to the present invention, only the measuring beam but also from the target with respect to the actual axis 9 is displaced laterally (still cruising or statically), to more accurately mapping a distance (and reduced spot), wherein the target with respect to the axis 9 distance measuring beam corresponding angular displacement can also be considered in the analysis.
 图8e示出了测量光束的目标方向相对于目标轴线9的位移的示例。  FIG. 8e shows the target direction of the measuring beam and the sample target displacement axis 9 with respect. 这样的位移能根据本发明被故意地引入(例如，如在上进一步已经描述的)。 Such displacement can be intentionally introduced (for example, as has been described in further) according to the present invention. 然而，位移还能是非期望的装置误差的校正，该装置误差能根据本发明利用静态目标线修改来校正。 However, the displacement also is undesirable error correction device, the device uses the static error can be corrected according to the target line modification of the present invention.
 静态目标线修改能利用根据本发明的液体透镜30来执行。  target line static modification can be performed according to the use of the liquid lens 30 of the present invention. 也就是说，偏转在较长一段时间内，即，多个分钟、小时或较长时间保持不变，或者在这些时段中仅微小地，即，以百分之几改变。 That is, the deflection in the longer period of time, i.e., a plurality of minutes, hours, or longer maintained, or only small in these periods, i.e., change to a few percent. 这样的静态目标线修改用于根据本发明配备的测绘装置11中，例如，以相对于装置11的目标轴线9对准和稳定测距仪的目标线10。 Such modifications static target line 11 in accordance with a mapping device of the present invention, e.g., 9 at the target with respect to the axis of the apparatus 11 and the target line stable range finder 10. 由于这样的修改根据本发明利用液体透镜30在装置11的操作期间是可能的，因此在装置生产期间对于对准的要求以及可选地在发生温度变化、冲击等时用于保持该对准的装置设计中的特定措施也能被省略。 Because such modifications are in accordance with the present invention, a liquid lens 30 during operation of the device 11 it is possible, thus producing means during the alignment requirements and optionally in the event of a temperature change, impact, etc. for holding the alignment device design specific measures can also be omitted. 利用根据本发明的液体透镜30,该液体透镜能借助多个电激活信号构造使得其光学折射特性能在至少两个或三个(至少两个横向和一个轴向）非一致的方向上不同的改变，能进行用于目标线稳定化的静态目标线修改，该静态目标线修改也能例如在视野中以简单的方式被校准。 According to the present invention, utilizing the liquid lens 30, the liquid lens can be activated by means of a plurality of electrical signals configured such that it can different optical refraction properties at least on two or three (at least two lateral and one axial) direction of the non-uniform change, can be used to target line stabilization static target line changes, modify the static target line can be for example in the field of vision in a simple manner is calibrated. 通过用于使距离测量的激光目标线可视的装置(例如，可见测量光、可由装置内的照相机检测的测量光、荧光目标表面、用于测量光的特定位置敏感传感器等)，能可选地甚至自动地进行这样的校准。 For the distance measurement by the laser target line visual means (e.g., visible light measurement, the measuring light detected by the camera apparatus, the fluorescent target surface, for measuring a specific position of the light-sensitive sensor, etc.), can optionally to even automatically perform such calibration. 如果根据本发明使用的液体透镜30能具有以高度再现性改变的光学特性，则在当前偏转的装置内以其他方式使用的反馈(例如，为此通过专用传感器或者通过利用装置内的反射，特别是寄生反射)能被省略。 If you can have a feedback to the optical properties of highly reproducible changes, within the current deflection device used in other ways (for example, do this through the use of special sensors or by means of internal reflection, especially liquid lens 30 according to the present invention for use parasitic reflection) can be omitted. 滞后效应在任何情况下常常变得非常小，或者几乎能被简单地处理，这是因为期望的折射特性的接近能始终从相同方向或者甚至从相同的起始位置发生。 Lag effect in any case are often very small, or almost can simply process, it is because close to the desired refractive properties can always happen, or even from the same direction starting from the same position.
 仪器精度的另一改进能被执行，这是因为目标线的系统漂移能在生产中（例如，在最终测试期间)被测量。 Another improvement  instrument accuracy can be performed because the target line system drift energy (for example, during the final test) is measured in production. 例如，作为温度的函数的目标线的错误瞄准借助于样条被参数化或存储在表中。 For example, as a function of temperature of the target line of sight errors are parameterized by means of splines or stored in the table. 在仪器应用期间，相应的温度校正然后借助温度传感器被一起施加于目标线。 During the instrument application, the corresponding temperature correction then together by means of a temperature sensor is applied to the target line. 温度传感器能靠近液体透镜30附接以补偿液体透镜30的漂移。 Temperature sensors attached near the liquid lens 30 to compensate for the liquid lens shift (30).
 利用液体透镜30的静态目标线修改能如所述的用来补偿仪器误差、未对准等。  The use of a liquid lens to modify the static target line 30 can be used to compensate for instrument error as above, misalignment and so on. 然而，目标线10的位移也能被故意引入。 However, the displacement of target line 10 can also be intentionally introduced. 例如，装置目标轴线9仅能在目标物体上粗糙地对准，该目标轴线的精确的角位置在装置11的视野内被自动识别（图像识别、反射器的自动检测等)或者由使用者例如确定在屏幕上。 For example, the target device is only roughly aligned with the axis 9 on a target object, the precise angular position of the object within the field of view in the axis of the apparatus 11 is automatically recognized (image recognition, automatic detection of the reflector, etc.) or by the user e.g. OK on the screen. 距离测量的测量光束然后能利用液体透镜30沿该方向被偏转，以便精确地测绘目标点，而装置目标轴线9未精确地对准在该目标点上。 Measuring the distance measuring beam is then able to use the liquid lens 30 is deflected in the direction, in order to accurately mapping the target point, and means the target is not precisely aligned with the axis 9 on the target point. 类似于用于光学数据载体的驱动器中的路线跟踪，因此利用伺服电动机(或者在测绘装置的情况下可选地还用手)，与通过光学器件(在本发明中尤其通过根据本发明的液体透镜）的实际测量的精密对准结合，来执行粗定位。 Drive similar to that used in the optical data carrier line track, so the use of a servo motor (by hand or optionally also in the case of the mapping device), and the optical device (in accordance with the present invention, in particular by means of a liquid of the present invention Precise alignment of the lens) of the actual measurement of binding to perform coarse positioning.
 图8e尤其示出了具有其目标轴线9的装置11的视野49。  FIG. 8e shows a particular vision has its target axis means 11 9 49. 在视野49中，能如上所述利用液体透镜移位的测绘装置11的测距仪的激光辐射10的入射点被定位，该入射点由十字箭头表示。 In the field of vision 49, range finder mapping device described above can be displaced by the liquid lens 11 laser radiation incident point 10 is located, the incident point is represented by a cross arrow. 液体透镜因此能执行静态稳定化，即，使点10与目标轴线9对应，或从该对准受控偏转。 Liquid lens so they can perform static stabilization, that is, the point 10 corresponds to the target axis 9, or controlled deflection from the alignment.
 图8f示出了测绘的示例，其中使用目标轴线9相对于距离测量的方向的非重合。  Figure 8f shows an example of mapping, in which the axis 9 with respect to the target non-coincidence of the direction of the distance measurement. 目标物体40是建筑物的角部，该角部利用由用于角测绘的十字准线表示的目标轴线9被瞄准。 Target object 40 is an angular portion of the building, the corner section for use by the target axis angle mapping crosshair represented 9 targeted. 为了进行距离测量，在同心距离测量的情况下，测量辐射的基本比例将靠近边缘被损失或者将击中不同于待被测绘的目标的目标并且将导致模糊度。 For distance measurement, in the case of concentric distance measurement, a substantial proportion of the radiation measurements near the edge is lost or will be hit by mapping different from the goals and objectives will lead to ambiguity. 由于进入目标物体40的底部左方形中的距离测量的目标点的所示位移，所有的测量辐射都能被取向在目标物体上并且用于测绘。 Displacement due to enter the target object shown in the bottom left square of the distance measurement 40 destination point, all measuring radiation can be oriented on the target object and for mapping. 在精化中，上述扫描运动的叠加能用来实现确定测量的表面相对于光学轴线的倾斜并且因此用于算术补偿借助该倾斜经由移位的测量点的任何可能测量误差。 In the refinement, the superposition of the scanning motion can be used to implement measure to determine the surface inclined with respect to the optical axis and thus compensate for the arithmetic means of the tilt shift via measuring point of any possible measurement errors. 边缘或台阶部的测绘也能通过利用目标轴线9的十字准线瞄准角部并且在围绕十字准线的四个方形中执行多次距离测量来执行。 Edge mapping or stepped portion can also use the crosshair target axis pointing angle section 9 and executed distance measurement performed multiple times around the crosshairs of four squares.
 图8g示出了从半导体光源发射的激光束(作为椭圆形光束）的不同发散角的根据本发明的补偿的示例，该半导体光源被用作在根据本发明的测绘装置11中用于测绘目的的光辐射。  Figure 8g shows a laser beam emitted from the semiconductor light source (as the elliptical beam) different divergence angle compensation according to an example of the present invention, the semiconductor light source is used by mapping device 11 according to the present invention. The purpose of the Survey and Mapping optical radiation. 利用在测绘装置中根据本发明使用的液体透镜，能执行光束修改以修改或补偿取决于轴线的光束发散。 The use of a liquid lens according to the present invention, the beam can be performed to modify or amend the compensation depends on the axis of the beam divergence in the mapping device.
 液体透镜为此目的具有液体，该液体在光学信号的波长范围内是透明的，并且该液体具有朝向具有从液体偏离的光学折射率的介质的至少一个界面。  For this purpose the liquid lens with a liquid, the liquid is transparent in the wavelength range of the optical signal, and which has at least one interface towards the liquid from a liquid having a refractive index of the deviation of the optical medium. 相邻介质能继而是液体或者然而例如是空气。 Adjacent medium can then, for example, is a liquid or air, however. 界面能借助多个电激活信号变形，使得元件的光学折射特性因此能在至少两个非一致的方向上不同地变化。 Interfacial energy by means of a plurality of electrical activation signal distortion, so that the optical element is thus different refractive properties vary non-uniform in at least two directions. 因此，例如，设定入射的测量辐射点的尺寸能在测绘装置的整个测量范围内实现，其中入射点的形状，即，测量光点的形状能根据规范被调节为例如圆形、椭圆形等。 Thus, for example, to set the incident radiation spot size measurement over the entire measuring range can be realized by means of Surveying and Mapping, the shape of which the incident point, that is, measuring spot shape can be adjusted, for example circular, oval according to norms . 因此，例如，如果在入射点处光束整形待被成像或投射，而没有像散，则优选地至少两个液体透镜被接连着使用，由此放大能象图像放大一样沿多个方向设定。 Thus, for example, if the beam shaping at the point of incidence to be imaged or projected, but not astigmatism, it is preferred that at least two liquid lenses are a series of use, which can magnify the image to enlarge the same as setting a plurality of directions.
 图8h示出了在ATR或测量光束中斑点的根据本发明的补偿或者由装置11发射的光辐射的调制波前的适应的示例。  FIG. 8h shows an example of the ATR or measuring beam spot according to the compensation of the present invention or a modulated wave optical radiation emitted by the device 11 prior to adaptation. 液体透镜能被激活成例如其折射特性的周期性变化，这导致斑点效应的擦净。 For example, into a liquid lens can be activated periodically changing its refractive properties, which leads to wipe spots effect. 该变化的振幅为此目的能十分微小，但是特别是以较大的频率被执行，特别是具有这样的振幅，即，该振幅足以模糊斑点，并且具有这样的频率，即，该频率在一次测量期间或超过多次测量而测量的足够快速地使斑点平均，所述测量针对测量值形成被平均。 The amplitude variation for this purpose can be very small, but especially with larger frequency is executed, has a particular amplitude, i.e., the amplitude is sufficient to blur spot, and has a frequency, i.e., the frequency measurement During measurement or multiple measurements over fast enough to make the average of the spot, the measurement is the average for the measured values is formed.
 图8i示出了作为根据本发明的目标线修改的另一示例的发射的辐射的强度的调制波前的适应。  FIG. 8i shows radiation emitted as a basis for adaptation of another example of the target line of the present invention to modify the intensity modulated wavefront. 光电子装置(诸如测距仪、ATR、或目标搜索单元）利用按照时间顺序调制的发射束来操作。 Optoelectronic device (such as a range finder, ATR, or target search unit) utilizing chronological order modulated beam emission operation. 这样的测绘装置的测量精度尤其受所使用的辐射10的调制波前的平坦性或均匀性影响。 Accuracy of such device particularly mapping flatness or uniformity of the modulated wave by the use of the radiation 10 before. 液体透镜30能用于发射的测量辐射的调制波前的适应。 Adapt modulation wave liquid lens 30 can be used to measure the radiation emitted ago. 特别是，液体透镜的多段激励器能被用来通过液体的界面的相应的变形获得在目标物体处发射的光辐射的平滑调制波前，或者使调制波前成为不同的期望的、例如平面形式。 In particular, multi-stage liquid lens actuator can be used in front of the target object at the optical radiation emitted by smoothing the modulated wave corresponding deformation liquid interface, or the modulated wave becomes different before desired, e.g., in the form of a plane . 除了调制波前的静态平滑，也能执行调制波前的动态平滑，其中，测量精度的提高由于按照时间顺序的平均而发生。 In addition to the static modulation wavefront smooth, dynamic modulation wave can be performed before smoothing, which improve the measurement accuracy due to the average chronological changes. 尤其是在ATR的情况下，斑点的存在干涉方向测量。 Especially in the case of the ATR, the presence of speckle interferometry direction. 斑点的按照时间顺序的平均能通过液体透镜的动态激活来实现，并且因此ATR测量角度的角精度能充分地被提高。 Average spot dynamically activated according to the chronological order of the liquid lens can be realized, and therefore the angular accuracy ATR measuring angles can be increased sufficiently.
 具有液体透镜30的根据本发明的测绘装置11的示例性视图在图9中以几个、部分地还可选的装置部件的简化示意图示出。  with the liquid lens 30 is shown in schematic in several, partly to simplify the apparatus further optional components in FIG. 9 according to an exemplary view mapping device 11 according to the present invention. 由装置11发射的光辐射10利用具有用于角测量的目标物体40的观察的目标轴线9的接收透镜50的接收光束路径由辐射10的同轴反射来发射。 Receiving lens 9 50 receiving the beam path of the target axis 10 use optical radiation emitted by the device 11 having a viewing angle for the target object measuring 40 by 10 coaxially reflected radiation to transmit. 从目标物体反射的发射的辐射的分量由输入光学器件50检测到并且被传导到光电子测距仪的接收元件(这里未示出）上。 Radiation component reflected from the target object emission detected by the input optics 50 and is transmitted to the receiving element optoelectronic rangefinder (here not shown). 光辐射10的目标线修改由装置内的液体透镜30来执行，所述目标线修改在这里由底部箭头表示。 Light irradiation target line 10 is modified by the liquid lens apparatus 30 is performed, the target line modifications here represented by the bottom arrow. 然而，除了目标线位移之外，这里所述的另一目标线修改或特别是其组合也能借助液体透镜来进行。 However, in addition to the linear displacement of the target, another target line modification described herein or in particular combinations thereof can also be carried out by means of the liquid lens. 平面图像传感器51 (例如， C⑶或CMOS照相机)还在该视图中示出，利用该平面图像传感器，目标物体能可见。 Plane image sensor 51 (e.g., C⑶ or CMOS camera) is also shown in this view, by using the planar image sensor, the target object can be seen. 可选地， 与平面图像传感器相关联的目标照明器还能配备有液体透镜30,典型的目标线修改是例如距离相关的发散设置。 Alternatively, the target illuminator and an image sensor associated with the plane also equipped with a liquid lens 30, a typical example is modified target line diverging from related settings. 此外，能设置透明通道、目标照明器、用于目标检测的光学位置敏感元件、自动瞄准、和/或目标跟踪、用于距离测量的基准路径、附加的图像识别元件、以及大大变化的光学元件(诸如透镜、偏转镜、棱镜、波长过滤器、偏光镜等)，这些元件这里为清楚起见未被示出。 In addition, setting the alpha channel, target illumination for an optical position sensor target detection, automatic targeting, and / or target tracking for distance measurement reference path, additional image recognition element, and an optical element varies greatly (such as a lens, a deflection mirrors, prisms, wavelength filters, polarizers, etc.), where these elements are not shown for clarity.
 相反，发射的光辐射的当前光束修改的在装置内的可选检测的示例以阴影被示出。  In contrast, an example of the light emitted radiation beam modification of the current in the device optional sense to shadow is shown. 所示的示例使用在装置11的内部中待被发射的辐射的寄生内反射54,该寄生内反射由光敏元件53接收或在其上被偏转。 In the example shown in the use of the internal device 11 is to be transmitted within a spurious reflected radiation 54, or within the receiving spurious reflections are deflected thereon by the photosensitive member 53. 光敏元件53例如能是PSD、一个或多个光电二极管、 或CCD或CMOS阵列。 E.g., the photosensitive member 53 can be PSD, one or more photodiodes, or a CCD or CMOS array. 另选地，除了上述寄生反射之外，也能使用为此目的特别安装的辐射的分量的分支。 Alternatively, in addition to the spurious reflections, branching can also be used for this purpose special radiation component installed. 例如，借助全息照相77,辐射的一小部分能以特定角度被反射和偏转，使得其被供应到位置敏感元件。 For example, by means of a hologram 77, a small fraction of a specific angle of radiation reflected and deflected so that it is supplied to the position sensor. 。 . 。 . 和目标轴线的含义相对于其使用将在本说明书中以互换的方式进行使用 And the meaning of the target axis relative to its use in this specification, the use of interchangeable manner
 图10示出了这样的特定情况，其中光学距离测量辐射的发射相对于装置11的目标轴线方向9双轴地发生。  FIG. 10 illustrates this particular case, the radiation of which emission optical distance measurement with respect to the axial direction of the target apparatus 11 9 biaxially occur. 距离测量10a、10b的传输光束路径的光学轴线因此清楚地偏离例如具有目标轴线9的物镜50的接收光束路径，这是因为如所示，彼此相邻布置的专用光学器件分别用于该目的。 Transmission distance measurement beam path 10a, 10b of the optical axis of the objective lens thus clearly deviate e.g. having a target received beam path 50 of the axis 9, this is because, as shown, are arranged adjacent to each other special optics are used for this purpose. 作为所示实施方式的另选，接收光束路径还能配备有液体透镜30 并且传输光束路径能不配备有液体透镜30,其中在该特定情况下，目标轴线可以另选地由传输光束路径限定，由此术语目标线和目标轴线的含义相对于其使用将在本说明书中以互换的方式进行使用。 As an alternative to the embodiment shown, the beam path receiving lens 30 also is provided with a liquid and can not transmit the beam path 30 is equipped with a liquid lens, wherein in this particular case, the target axis may alternatively be defined by the transmission beam path, whereby the meaning of the term goals and objectives of the axis line relative to its use in this specification, the use of interchangeable manner. 通过具有光学透明液体的、根据本发明用于测绘装置11中的液体透镜30,该液体透镜具有朝向具有偏离液体的光学折射率的介质的至少一个界面，该界面能借助多个电激活信号变形，使得因此液体透镜30的光学折射特性能在至少两个非一致的方向上变化，测量辐射在目标物体40上的入射点也能在这样的非同轴系统的情况下被设定， 该入射点独立于距离停在目标方向的轴线上。 At least one transparent liquid interface, according to the present invention, the mapping means 11 for the liquid lens 30, the liquid lens having an optical medium having a refractive index deviates toward the liquid by having optical, the interface can be deformed by means of a plurality of electrical activation signal such that the optical refractive properties of the lens so that the liquid 30 can vary in at least two non-identical directions, measured in the radiation incident on the target object 40 points can be set in the case of such a non-coaxial system, the entrance point is independent of the distance to stop in the direction of the axis of the target. 因此，在接近的目标物体40的情况下并且还在更遥远的目标物体40b的情况下，它始终在目标轴线方向9上被测量，这能利用测绘装置11中的液体透镜30由目标线修改来获得，这是因为发射的光学轴线的方向例如从10a变到10b。 Thus, in the case when approaching the target object 40 and also the more distant target object 40b, which is always measured in the axial direction of the target 9, which can take advantage of the mapping apparatus 11 by the liquid lens 30 to modify the target line is obtained, because the direction of the optical axis of the emitted e.g. changed from 10a to 10b. 因此，由距离测量光源55发射的辐射的入射点始终位于装置目标轴线9上并且通过分析距离测量光接收器56确定的距离不管发射机的双轴布置始终被限定在位于目标轴线9上的点处。 Therefore, the distance measuring the radiation emitted by the incident point light source 55 means the target is always located on the axis 9 and through the analysis of the distance measuring optical receiver 56 determines the distance regardless of transmitter biaxial arrangement is always defined at the target point on the axis 9 place. 作为另外的目标线修改，例如，测量辐射的校准能附加地被适应，以在目标物体上分别以不同的目标距离获得期望的光点。 As a further modification of the target line, for example, calibration of measuring radiation can additionally be adapted to different target distances are available on the target object desired spot. 在该文献中描述的从目标轴线9的距离测量点的受控静态或动态偏转也能附加地作为目标线的修改的另一示例被应用。 Another example of a static or dynamic deflection from the controlled target axis distance measuring point 9 can additionally modify the target line as described in this document be applied.
 可选地，在距离确定期间，由液体透镜30造成的角偏转能被考虑到，该角偏转在接近目标的情况下由于三角形形式将尤其破坏距离测量结果。  Alternatively, during a determined distance, the liquid lens 30 caused by the angular deflection can be taken into account, since the deflection angle triangle form from damage, especially in the case of the measurement results close to the target. 测量辐射的入射点能例如由光位置敏感元件51 (例如，照相机）确定，并且偏转能基于所述入射点由液体透镜30适应。 Measuring the radiation incident point can be determined by, for example optical position sensor 51 (e.g., a camera), and deflected by the liquid lens 30 can adapt based on the point of incidence. 相邻区遮蔽的问题也能由根据本发明的测绘装置11中的液体透镜30来克服。 Adjacent area shaded problems can be overcome by the mapping device 11 according to the present invention is a liquid lens 30.
 图11示出了示例性目标线修改，其中测距仪的光源55a的光学距离测量辐射利用液体透镜30来改变。  FIG. 11 illustrates an exemplary modified target line, wherein the optical distance measuring rangefinder radiation source 55a by the liquid lens 30 is changed. 光源55a是激光二极管元件，其能发射不同波长10a和10b，例如，红外和/或可见红色。 The light source is a laser diode elements 55a, 10a which can emit different wavelengths and 10b, e.g., infrared and / or visible red. 这样的元件在市场上可购买到，然而，两个波长的辐射在不同点处被发射和/或光束具有不同的散度，这些光束附加地通常还经受示例性散射。 Such elements may be purchased on the market to, however, the two wavelengths of radiation are emitted at different points and / or light beams having different divergence, these beams usually subjected to additional exemplary scattering. 利用通过根据本发明的液体透镜30的目标线修改，这样的元件能被用于测绘装置中，这是因为这样不仅激光光源55a的可能偏离发射参数而且传输光学器件的色差能借助液体透镜来校正，并且激光目标线在目标轴线上的对准是可执行的(或故意从其偏离，如所述的)。 By the use of a liquid lens according to the present invention, the modified target line 30, such elements can be used in the mapping means, it is not only because it may deviate from the laser light source 55a of the transmission parameters and the transmission optics chromatic aberration can be corrected by means of the liquid lens , and the laser target line aligned on the axis of the target is an executable (or deliberately deviate therefrom, as described). 因此，例如，回射器上的测量能利用不可见IR辐射来进行，并且能利用可见测量点来进行无反射器测量，并且目标线10和目标轴线9能彼此对准。 Thus, for example, measuring retroreflector are not visible on the use of IR radiation can be performed, and can use non-visible measuring points for measuring reflector, and the target 10 and the target line 9 can be aligned with each other axes. 其任何可能校准能自动地并且还在视野中被执行， 而使用者不必进行机械干涉。 It can automatically calibrate any possible horizons and is still being implemented, and the user does not have to be mechanical interference. 激光二极管中的已知现象是它们的发射波长的热漂移。 The phenomenon of the laser diode is known of their heat emission wavelength shift. 在使用具有色彩纵向色差的简单且成本有效的校准光学器件时，四分之一波长的条件能借助液体透镜和激光二极管上的温度测量来保持，使得目标物体40上的激光点锐度在发生其发射波长的热漂移的情况下也得到保持。 Having longitudinal chromatic aberration in the color of a simple and cost-effective alignment optics, the quarter-wavelength measurement conditions can by means of the liquid lens and the temperature on the laser diode to keep, so that the sharpness of the laser spot on the target object 40 in the event of the case of the heat emission wavelength drift has also been maintained.
 图12示出了示例性目标线修改，其中，利用液体透镜30,测距仪的光源55a的距离测量辐射呈沿目标物体40的方向从装置11发射的辐射10a的形式被传输或者呈装置内的基准辐射l〇r的形式借助已知长度的基准部分被传导到接收器RX上以用于距离测量辐射。  FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary modified target line, wherein a liquid lens 30, the range finder distance measurement 55a of the radiation source was a direction of the target object 40 is transferred from the device 11 in the form of radiation emitted or 10a in the form of reference radiation l〇r within the device by means of a known length of the reference portion is conducted to the receiver RX for distance measurement radiation. 对该功能可选地，利用液体透镜30,测距仪的目标线10z相对于装置11的目标轴线9的对准还能被改变和/或所发射的辐射l〇z的光束发散能被改变。 Alternatively, the function, using a liquid lens 30, the target line 10z rangefinder relative to the alignment axis of the target device 11 can be changed 9 and / or the radiation emitted beam divergence can be changed l〇z . 在本文献中描述的借助液体透镜30的其他目标线修改也可应用。 In this document the target line by means of the liquid lens 30 other modifications described may also be used.
 图13a以大大简化的形式示出了测绘装置11，该测绘装置11具有安装在其中的测距仪的传输光束路径。  FIG. 13a is greatly simplified form shows the mapping unit 11, the mapping unit 11 has a transmission beam path rangefinder mounted therein. 激光源55发射用于距离测量的已调幅的光辐射，该光辐射根据本发明由液体透镜30修改。 Laser source 55 emits light radiation for distance measurement has been amplitude modulated, the light radiation 30 modified by the liquid lens according to the present invention. 为了实现点精确测量并且还确保目标物体40上的测量点的良好可见性，距离测量辐射被修改，使得其光束腰至少近似地停在目标物体40上。 In order to achieve accurate measurement points and also to ensure good visibility of the target object on the measuring point 40, the distance measuring radiation is modified so that it at least approximately to stop the beam waist on the target object 40. 为了设定此例如能使用第一距离测量的结果。 In order to set this example, you can use the results of the first distance measurement.
 液体透镜30还能被放置在接收器RX前方。  the liquid lens 30 can be placed in front of the receiver RX. 特别是在短测量距离的情况下，通过利用液体透镜30适应距离测量光束路径的几何形状导致避免近场遮蔽。 Especially in the case of short-distance measurement, by using the liquid from the lens 30 to adapt to the geometry of the measuring beam path leading to avoid the near-field shielding. 物体40能借助液体透镜30至少大约在所有距离处成像在接收器RX上。 Object 40 can aid in the liquid lens 30 is at least about the receiver RX imaging on all distances.
 图13b示出了在测绘更遥远的目标物体40期间图13a的情况，其中另外测距仪的目标线ΙΟζ从装置11的目标轴线9的偏差是可见的。  Figure 13b shows the situation in a more distant target object mapping Fig. 13a 40 during which additional rangefinder goal line ΙΟζ deviation from the target device 11 axis 9 is visible. 利用液体透镜30,在该示例中，测量光继而分别聚集在目标物体40的区域中和/或两个目标方向的偏移被补偿或者可能期望的偏移被引入，或者动态扫描运动被引入，光束发散适应、斑点减少、波前适应等被执行，简而言之，本文献中所述的目标线修改的选择的结合，其中具体选择由测量要求产生。 The use of the liquid lens 30, in this example, the measurement light are then gathered in the offset region of the target object 40 and / or two target directions may be compensated or the desired shift is introduced, or dynamic scanning movement is introduced, Adaptation beam divergence, speckle reduction, wavefront adaptation is performed, in short, the combination of this document modified target line selected, wherein the selection is generated by the specific measurement requirements.
 图13c示出了在测绘良好反射、协作目标(诸如在作为目标物体的测绘棒40b上所示的回射器)期间从前述两个图的根据本发明的测绘装置。 According to the mapping device of the present invention from the preceding two graphs  Figure 13c shows (such as the retro-reflector as target object mapping rod 40b shown) in good reflection mapping, cooperative target period. 因为目标物体良好地反射，因此测量辐射能利用液体透镜在这种情况下显著更发散地被发射，因此距离测量精度没有由于过低的信号强度而变得更坏。 Because good reflection of the target object, the measurement radiation by the liquid lens in this case be significantly more divergent emission, since there is no signal strength becomes low distance measurement accuracy worse. 该宽的、强烈发散的测量光束10Z还能例如用于在装置11的ATR的视野中自动识别目标，利用ATR，目标物体40的角位置也能被自动确定。 The wide, strongly diverging measuring beam 10Z can e.g. ATR vision apparatus for automatic identification of the target 11, utilizing ATR, the angular position of the target object 40 can also be automatically determined. 为了减小斑点效应，该斑点效应在精确目标查找期间具有干涉效应，上述其中一个方法能附加地应用于此目的。 In order to reduce speckle effect, the speckle effect an interference effect during the precise goal to find, said one of the methods can additionally be applied for this purpose. 在一个实施方式中，例如，测量光束ΙΟζ的发散能作为测量距离的函数设定，其中发散角随着渐增的测量距离而减小。 In one embodiment, for example, the measuring beam divergence can ΙΟζ set distance as a function of the measure, which measure the angle of divergence with increasing distance decreases. 因此，在测绘棒处或在测绘人员处的辐照度仅随着渐增距离而略微减小，由此测绘装置的接收信号保持足够强并且测量精度得到提高。 Thus, only slightly decreases with increasing distance from the rod at the Survey and Mapping Office or irradiance at surveyors, mapping device whereby the received signal is strong enough to maintain and measurement accuracy is improved.
 图14a、图14b和图14c示出了测绘装置的几个另外的实施方式的示例，该测绘装置根据本发明配备有液体透镜，使得上述目标线修改能利用所述液体透镜来进行。 Example  FIG. 14a, FIG. 14b and 14c illustrate several mapping means further embodiment, the mapping apparatus according to the present invention is equipped with a liquid lens, such that said target line using the liquid lens can be modified to . 具体地， 这些测绘装置是这样的测绘装置，即，其利用光电子测距仪的能绕两个轴线移动的目标线确定目标物体上的目标点的极坐标。 Specifically, these mapping device is such that the mapping device, namely, the use of optoelectronic rangefinder can move around two axes goal line to determine the polar coordinates of the target point on the target object. 尤其是，视距仪或全站仪在图14a中示出，激光扫描器在图14b中示出，并且激光跟踪器在图14c中示出。 In particular, the tachymeter or total station is shown in Figure 14a, the laser scanner is shown in Figure 14b, and the laser tracker is shown in Figure 14c.
 对于本领域技术人员显然，这里所示的光束路径实际上是示意性的，并且附加的光学元件以及它们之间的几何条件在实际实施的情况下能相应地是必须的，以获得装置11 的设计中的所述功能性。  For obvious to a person skilled in the art, the beam path shown here are schematic in nature, and the additional optical element and the geometry between them in the case of practical embodiment can accordingly be necessary to obtain The functional design of the device 11.
 根据本发明，测绘装置11中的光学元件30因此被实施和布置成使得在利用其时， 例如，目标线修改能以如下形式单独或彼此结合地进行：  According to the present invention, the mapping means 11 of the optical element 30 is therefore implemented and arranged such that in the use thereof, e.g., the target line can be modified in the following forms, alone or in combination with each other:
 -关于测绘装置11的目标轴线9对准目标线；  - on the mapping device 9 at the target line target axis 11;
 -改变发射的辐射的发散，特别是方向相关的变化；  - change the divergence of radiation emitted, in particular directions of change;
 -通过折射特性的动态变化减小斑点效应；  - reduce speckle effect dynamic changes by refraction;
 -使调制波前平滑；  - the modulation wavefront smooth;
 -执行第一光束路径ΙΟζ的动态扫描运动；  - the implementation of the first beam path ΙΟζ dynamic scanning motion;
 -在基准光束路径或测量光束路径之间切换；  - between the reference beam path or the measuring beam path switching;
 -相对于彼此至少对准两个不同光辐射源的光束路径；和/或  - aligned with respect to each other at least two different optical beam path of the radiation source; and / or
 -利用第一和/或第二光束路径跟踪目标物体40。  - using the first and / or second beam path to track the target object 40.
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|International Classification||G01C15/00, G01S17/66, G01S17/02|
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|12 Nov 2014||C10||Entry into substantive examination|
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