|Publication number||CN103398835 B|
|Application number||CN 201310366654|
|Publication date||6 Jan 2016|
|Filing date||21 Aug 2013|
|Priority date||21 Aug 2013|
|Also published as||CN103398835A|
|Publication number||201310366654.1, CN 103398835 B, CN 103398835B, CN 201310366654, CN-B-103398835, CN103398835 B, CN103398835B, CN201310366654, CN201310366654.1|
|Inventors||易仕和, 陈植, 付佳, 朱杨柱, 何霖|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Classifications (1), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: SIPO, Espacenet|
技术领域 TECHNICAL FIELD
 本发明涉及气膜冷却测量领域，特别地，涉及一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统及方法。  The present invention relates to the field of film cooling measure, in particular, hypersonic wind tunnel gun film cooling transient heat flux test relates to a system and method based on.
背景技术 Background technique
 气膜冷却是超声速/高超声速研究领域里的一种典型流动，尤其在光学成像方面具有较广的应用。  The film cooling is supersonic / hypersonic research in the field of a typical flow, in particular has a wide application in optical imaging. 气膜冷却的效果通常是通过测量其热流分布进行评估。 Film cooling effect is usually assessed by measuring its heat distribution. 在常规大气环境下测量气膜冷却的热流分布较为简单，但如果要在超声速，甚至是高超声速气流中测量气膜冷却热流则难度较大。 Measurement of film cooling under normal atmospheric heat flux distribution is relatively simple, but if you want to supersonic and even hypersonic airflow measuring film cooling heat is difficult. 地面上进行高超声速气膜冷却的热流测量，需要有高超声速风洞设备，瞬态热流测量技术，以及相应的测试方法。 Conduct hypersonic film cooling heat flow measurements on the ground, the need for hypersonic wind tunnel equipment, transient heat flow measurement technology, and the corresponding test methods. 由于高超声速炮风洞运行时间为毫秒量级，瞬态热流测量除了要解决测试技术本身的问题以外，还要考虑风洞运行、气膜运行、热流测量三者的同步控制。 Since the hypersonic wind tunnel gun running time of milliseconds, transient heat flow measurements in addition to the test to solve problems beyond the technology itself, but also consider the wind tunnel run, film running, heat flow measurements synchronization control three. 由于气膜可以在不同的来流条件下工作，比如高超声速、超声速、 亚声速甚至无流动等情况，而研究高超声速条件下的气膜冷却在实际工程中意义重大，同时也是目前研究的难点之一。 Since the gas film can work in different incoming flow conditions, such as hypersonic supersonic, subsonic or no flow, etc., and study film cooling under hypersonic conditions in the actual project is of great significance, but also the present study Difficulties one. 由于大多数高超声速风洞是脉冲风洞，运行时间很短，所以很显然，在该条件下研究气膜冷却的热流分布，气膜和热流测试系统的运行必须提前于风洞流场的建立。 Since most of the hypersonic wind tunnel is the pulse wind tunnel, running time is very short, so it is clear that study film cooling under the conditions of heat distribution and heat flow test run gas membrane system must advance in the establishment of wind tunnel flow field . 如果在风洞流场建立之前，气膜开启过早，气膜的冷却效应会使得布置在试验模型表面的热流传感器过度预冷却，从而增大风洞运行时的测量误差。 If, before the establishment of wind tunnel flow field, film opened prematurely, the cooling effect of air film will make the heat flux sensor is disposed in the test model of the surface over a pre-cooling, thereby increasing the measurement error tunnel running. 所以必须设计一套能够准确控制气膜开启、热流测量系统开启和风洞运行的同步控制及测量系统和方法。 It must be able to accurately control the design of a gas film on, heat flow measurement systems enable synchronous control and measurement systems and methods and wind tunnel operation. 目前，尚无可用于高超声速炮风洞中的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法及系统。 Currently, there is no gun can be used for hypersonic wind tunnel in the film cooling transient heat flux testing methods and systems.
发明内容 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 本发明目的在于提供一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统及方法，以解决高超声速炮风洞环境中气膜冷却瞬态热流难以测试的技术问题。  The object of the present invention is to provide a gun on a hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling transient heat flux test systems and methods to solve technical problems in hypersonic wind tunnel environments gun film cooling transient heat difficult to test.
 为实现上述目的，本发明采用的技术方案如下：  To achieve the above object, the present invention is used as follows:
 -种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统，该高超声速炮风洞包括依次连接的高压段、膜腔、低压段、喷管及实验舱，该测试系统包括：  - kind of gun-based hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling transient heat test system, which includes a high voltage hypersonic wind tunnel gun sequentially connected segments, the film chamber, the low pressure section, nozzle and JEM, the test system comprising :
 用于检测膜腔内压力的压力传感器；  The membrane cavity for detecting a pressure sensor;
 压力传感器经放大器连接有同步控制器，同步控制器根据经放大器放大后的压力信号生成触发信号，触发信号用于控制设于实验舱内气膜冷却模型表面生成气膜冷却喷流的时机；  Pressure sensor is connected to a synchronous controller amplifier, synchronous controller generates a trigger signal in response to pressure by the amplifier after the signal, the trigger signal for controlling the cabin located in the experimental film cooling model generated on the surface of film cooling jets opportunity;
 气膜冷却模型表面设有热流传感器，热流传感器的输出端经数字信号采集器连接计算机；  The cooling air film features model surface heat flux sensor, heat sensor output terminal is connected via a digital signal acquisition computer;
 数字信号采集器的控制端连接至同步控制器，数字信号采集器根据同步控制器的工作时序采集来自热流传感器的数据； Control terminal  Digital signal acquisition device connected to the synchronous controller, digital signal acquisition collect data from the heat flux sensor timing synchronization based on the work of the controller;
 计算机用于控制同步控制器的工作时序及存储数字信号采集器采集的热流数据。  Computer for heat flow data control operation timing and synchronization controller stores the digital signal acquisition acquisition.
 进一步地，同步控制器的输出端连接有放大触发信号的固态继电器，固态继电器连接有用于开启或者关闭气膜冷却喷流的电磁阀。  Further, the output of the synchronous controller is connected to a trigger signal amplification solid-state relays, solid state relays are connected to the solenoid valve for opening or closing film cooling jets.
 进一步地，热流传感器包括恒压源电路及设于恒压源电路两端用于输出电压值的电桥电路，电桥电路的至少一个桥臂上设有薄膜热敏电阻。  Further, at least one heat flux sensor comprises a bridge circuit and a constant voltage source provided in a bridge circuit both ends of the constant voltage source circuit for outputting a voltage value, the arm of the bridge circuit provided with a thin film thermistor.
 进一步地，热流传感器为多个，在气膜冷却模型表面形成热流传感器阵列。  Further, a plurality of heat flux sensor in the cooling air film model surface heat flux sensor array is formed.
 根据本发明的另一方面，还提供一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法，包括以下步骤：  According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a gun on a hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling transient heat flux test method comprising the steps of:
 开启高超声速炮风洞；  Open hypersonic wind tunnel gun;
 检测高超声速炮风洞膜腔内的压力值；  Detection hypersonic wind tunnel blasting pressure membrane cavity;
 当膜腔内的压力值瞬间升高时，开启气膜冷却喷流以使得位于实验舱内的气膜冷却模型表面形成的冷却气膜不晚于高超声速炮风洞的建立；  when the film chamber pressure rises instantaneously, open air film cooling film cooling jets so that the cabin is located in the experimental film cooling model formed on the surface no later than cannon build hypersonic wind tunnel;
 测量气膜冷却模型表面的热流数据。  The heat flow data measuring the surface film cooling model.
 进一步地，热流数据为经热流传感器测量并存储至计算机内。  Further, the heat flow data measured and stored into the computer by the heat sensor.
 进一步地，热流传感器在执行开启高超声速炮风洞的步骤之前已处于工作状态。  Further, the heat flux sensor in the implementation of open already in operation before the hypersonic wind tunnel step cannon.
 进一步地，热流传感器包括恒压源电路及设于恒压源电路两端用于输出电压值的电桥电路，电桥电路的至少一个桥臂上设有薄膜热敏电阻。  Further, at least one heat flux sensor comprises a bridge circuit and a constant voltage source provided in a bridge circuit both ends of the constant voltage source circuit for outputting a voltage value, the arm of the bridge circuit provided with a thin film thermistor.
 进一步地，热流传感器为多个，在气膜冷却模型表面形成热流传感器阵列，用于测量同一时刻气膜冷却模型表面多个位置的热流数据。  Further, a plurality of heat flux sensor in the cooling air film formation model surface heat flux sensor array for measuring heat flow data from the same time a surface film cooling model multiple locations.
 本发明具有以下有益效果：  The present invention has the following beneficial effects:
 本发明基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统及方法，通过测量高超声速炮风洞膜腔内的压力值，使得气膜冷却喷流的开启时刻稍微提前于风洞流场建立，以保证在风洞流场建立的同时，冷却喷流流场亦同时建立，且由于通过检测风洞模腔内的压力值来触发冷却喷流流场的建立，避免了冷却喷流流场提前提前开启过早导致的热流传感器的工作过载，从而为测量高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据提供了条件，且通过同步控制器的工作时序的控制，保证了风洞运行、气膜运行、及热流测量三者的同步。  The present invention film cooling transient heat flux testing system and method based on hypersonic wind tunnel gun, gun hypersonic wind tunnel by measuring the membrane cavity pressure value, so turn-film cooling jet is slightly ahead of the wind hole flow field created in order to ensure at the same time the wind tunnel flow field established cooling jet flow field also while building, and because the wind tunnel value by detecting the pressure in the cavity to trigger the establishment of a cooling jet flow field, to avoid cooling jet flow field ahead of advance turn heat flux sensor prematurely due to work overload, so as to measure the hypersonic flow under conditions of film cooling transient heat flow data to provide the conditions and timing of work by synchronizing the controller's control to ensure synchronous wind tunnel run, film running, and heat flow measurements of all three.
 除了上面所描述的目的、特征和优点之外，本发明还有其它的目的、特征和优点。  In addition to the above-described object, features and advantages of the present invention as well as other objects, features and advantages. 下面将参照图，对本发明作进一步详细的说明。 Below with reference to FIG, the present invention will be further described in detail.
附图说明 Brief Description
 构成本申请的一部分的附图用来提供对本发明的进一步理解，本发明的示意性实施例及其说明用于解释本发明，并不构成对本发明的不当限定。  The drawings constitute a part of this application to provide a further understanding of the present invention, an exemplary embodiment of the present invention and are used to explain the present invention, the present invention does not constitute an undue limitation. 在附图中： In the drawings:
 图1是本发明优选实施例基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统的三维结构示意图；  FIG. 1 is a schematic three-dimensional structures based on hypersonic wind tunnel gun film cooling transient heat flux testing system preferred embodiment of the invention;
 图2是本发明优选实施例中尚超声速炮风洞的原理不意图；  FIG. 2 is a diagram of the gun still supersonic wind tunnel of the principles of the preferred embodiment of the present invention is not intended;
 图3是图1的平面结构示意图；  FIG. 3 is a plan schematic structural view of Figure 1;
 图4是本发明气膜冷却喷流在高超声速喷流的环境下形成冷却气膜的原理示意图；  FIG. 4 is a film cooling principles of the present invention jet cooling air film is formed at hypersonic jet schematic environment;
 图5是本发明优选实施例热流传感器的电路原理图；  FIG. 5 is a schematic circuit diagram of a preferred embodiment of the invention the heat flux sensor; and
 图6是本发明优选实施例基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法的步骤流程图；  FIG. 6 is a flowchart of a hypersonic wind tunnel gun film cooling transient heat flux test method based on the preferred embodiment of the invention;
 图7是本发明优选实施例基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法的工作时序示意图。  FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of a preferred embodiment of the present invention is based on work timing hypersonic wind tunnel gun film cooling transient heat flux test methods.
具体实施方式 detailed description
 以下结合附图对本发明的实施例进行详细说明，但是本发明可以由权利要求限定和覆盖的多种不同方式实施。  the following with reference to embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail, but the present invention can be defined by the claims, and implement a variety of different ways to cover.
 参照图1及图3,本发明的优选实施例提供了一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统，该高超声速炮风洞包括依次连接的高压段1、膜腔7、低压段2、喷管6 及实验舱9。  Referring to FIGS. 1 and 3, the preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a film-cooling system based on the transient heat flux test hypersonic wind tunnel gun, the gun hypersonic wind tunnel include high-pressure section connected in turn 1, film chamber 7, a low pressure section 2, the nozzle 6 and JEM 9. 该测试系统包括： The test system includes:
 用于检测膜腔7内压力的压力传感器17 ;  7 for detecting the internal pressure of the film chamber pressure sensor 17;
 压力传感器17经放大器15连接有同步控制器14,同步控制器14根据经放大器15放大后的压力信号生成触发信号，触发信号用于控制设于实验舱9内气膜冷却模型100 表面生成气膜冷却喷流的时机；  The pressure sensor 15 is connected to the synchronous controller 14, synchronous controller 14 generates a trigger signal according to 15 amplified by an amplifier pressure signal, the trigger signal for controlling JEM 9 is provided in the film cooling model 100 is amplified by the surface 17 film cooling jets generate timing;
 气膜冷却模型100表面设有热流传感器11，热流传感器11的输出端经数字信号采集器12连接计算机16 ;  100 surface film cooling model 11 has a heat sensor, heat sensor output terminal via a digital signal acquisition 11 12 16 connected to a computer;
 数字信号采集器12的控制端连接至同步控制器14,数字信号采集器12根据同步控制器14的工作时序采集来自热流传感器11的数据； Control terminal  Digital signal acquisition 12 is connected to a synchronous controller 14, the digital signal acquisition 12 to collect data from flux sensor 11 according to the synchronous operation timing controller 14;
 计算机16用于控制同步控制器14的工作时序及存储数字信号采集器12采集的热流数据。  Computer 16 heat flow data for controlling the operation timing synchronization controller 14, and stores the digital signal acquisition 12 acquisition.
 本发明实施例基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统，通过测量高超声速炮风洞膜腔内的压力值，使得气膜冷却喷流的开启时刻稍微提前于风洞流场建立，以保证在风洞流场建立的同时，冷却喷流流场亦同时建立，同时通过检测模腔7内的压力值来触发气膜建立的开启时刻，避免了气膜的开启时刻过早导致的热流传感器工作过载，而导致在高超声速气流来到模型表面时，热流传感器无法准确测量的故障。  The embodiment of the invention based on hypersonic wind tunnel gun film cooling transient heat test system, by measuring the hypersonic wind tunnel film gun cavity pressure value, so turn-film cooling jet is slightly ahead of the wind hole flow field created in order to ensure at the same time the wind tunnel flow field established cooling jet flow field also while building, while a value of 7 by the pressure inside the cavity detection to trigger open air film established time, avoiding the open air film heat sensor time work prematurely due to overload, which resulted in the hypersonic airflow to the model surface heat flux sensors can not accurately measure the fault. 本发明实施例通过检测风洞的模腔7内的压力并根据检测的压力触发气膜的建立时机，既保证了气膜冷却流场早于或者同步于超声速气流流场的建立，又避免气膜的过早建立以保证热流传感器不过载，从而为精准测量高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据提供了条件，且通过同步控制器的工作时序的控制，保证了风洞运行、气膜运行、及热流测量三者的同步。 7 cases of pressure within the cavity by detecting the wind tunnel and trigger the establishment of embodiment of the invention the film based on the timing of gas pressure testing, both to ensure the film cooling flow field prior to or sync to build a supersonic air flow field, but also to avoid gas premature establishment of the film to ensure that the heat flux sensor is not overloaded, so as to accurately measure the hypersonic flow under conditions of film cooling transient heat flow data to provide the conditions and timing of work by synchronizing the controller controls to ensure that the wind tunnel run , film running, and heat flow measurements three synchronization.
 参照图2及图3,在本实施例中，高超声速炮风洞包括依次连接的高压段1、膜腔7、 低压段2、喷管6及实验舱9,其中膜腔7由夹膜机3夹紧两个高压段膜片4形成，在低压段2与喷管6之间经夹膜机3设有用于阻挡低压段2与喷管6的低压段膜片5,在低压段2内设有轻质量活塞8。  Referring to FIGS. 2 and 3, in the present embodiment, the hypersonic wind tunnel gun connected in turn comprises a high pressure section 1, the film chamber 7, the low-pressure section 2, the nozzle 6 and JEM 9, wherein the film chamber 7 3 Clamping clip film machine two high-pressure section of the diaphragm 4 is formed between the low-pressure nozzle 6 paragraph 2 and 3 is provided by the film clip machine for blocking the low-pressure section 2 and the low-pressure nozzle diaphragm 5 paragraph 6, in the low-pressure Segment 2 features a lightweight piston 8. 高超声速炮风洞主要用于产生高超声气流以进行风洞实验，具体的工作原理如下：试验时，高压段1和低压段2内的气体充至试验所需的压力，在膜腔7内也充气至一定压力，确保高压段1和膜腔7之间的高压段膜片4不破裂，膜腔7与低压段2之间的高压段膜片4不破裂，膜腔7起到了平衡高压段1与低压段2高低压气体的压力差；快速释放膜腔7的气体，位于膜腔7两侧的两个高压段膜片4在高压段1与低压段2之间的压力差作用下先后破裂。 Hypersonic wind tunnel gun ultrasound is mainly used to produce high airflow for wind tunnel experiments, specific works as follows: During the test, the gas pressure section 1 and section 2 low pressure within the charge to the required test pressure within the mold cavity 7 also inflated to a certain pressure, to ensure that high-pressure section of the diaphragm pressure section 1 and the film chamber 7 between 4 is not broken, the film chamber 7 and the low pressure section of the high pressure section between the diaphragm 2 4 does not rupture, the film played a balance hyperbaric chamber 7 Low pressure section 1 and section 2 of the difference between high and low pressure gas; rapid release of the film chamber gas 7, the next two high-pressure section of the diaphragm located on both sides of the membrane chamber 7 4 pressure between the high pressure section 1 and section 2 of the difference between the low-pressure role He has broken. 此时，高压气体迅速进入到低压段2并推动轻质量活塞8向右推进，在高压的作用下，轻质量活塞8运动速度很快，会在轻质量活塞8前形成正激波。 In this case, high-pressure gas quickly into the low-pressure section 2 and promote the right to promote the quality of light piston 8, under the action of high pressure, light weight piston 8 motion fast, light weight piston 8 in the front to form a positive shock. 正激波到达低压段膜片5时发生发射，遇到前进的轻质量活塞8,激波反射反复进行，对低压段2管道内气体不断压缩，使其压力、温度提高，压力提高到一定程度，低压段膜片5破裂，高温高压气体进入喷管6膨胀，达到所需的高超声速气流进入实验舱9,气膜冷却模型100即可在实验舱9内即可以进行高超声速气动实验。 Emission occurs when the normal shock reaches the low pressure section of the diaphragm 5, encountered light weight forward piston 8, shock reflection repeatedly, paragraph 2 of the low pressure gas pipeline constantly compressed to a pressure, temperature increase, pressure is increased to a certain extent low pressure section rupture membrane 5, high temperature high pressure gas into the nozzle 6 expansion, to achieve the required hypersonic airflow into the JEM 9, film cooling model 100 can be in the JEM 9 which can be hypersonic aerodynamic experiments.
 需要说明的是，高超声速炮风洞的运行时间是由低压段2内的气体决定的。  It should be noted that the hypersonic wind tunnel gun running time is determined by the gas within the low-pressure section 2. 因为这部分气体作为流动的介质进入喷管6、实验舱9。 Because this part of the gas as a medium flowing into the nozzle 6, JEM 9. 当这些气体用完后，风洞即运行结束。 When these gases are exhausted, the end of the tunnel that is running. 通常而言这类风洞设备的运行时间在毫秒量级，本方案中的高超声速炮风洞的运行时间为20ms。 Generally this type of wind tunnel equipment run time in milliseconds, in this scenario gun hypersonic wind tunnel running time of 20ms. 宏观上虽然风洞的运行时间非常短，但是对于高超声速流动而言已经足够了。 Although the macro tunnel running time is very short, but for the purposes of hypersonic flow is sufficient. 通常高超声速流场的建立时间是3~5ms。 Setup time is usually hypersonic flow field is 3 ~ 5ms. 这里需要明确几个概念，风洞运行时间是指在高超声速流场建立后风洞稳定运行的时间。 It should be clear a few concepts, wind tunnel running time is after the hypersonic wind tunnel flow field to establish a stable run. 而高超声速流场的建立是指风洞气流从开始运动到达到风洞流场的设计状态的这段时间，建立之后才能稳定运行。 The establishment of hypersonic flow field is defined from the beginning of the movement after the wind tunnel airflow to meet the design state wind tunnel flow field this time, in order to establish a stable operation. 另外，风洞的启动时刻是指人为地促使风洞开启的时刻（通俗地说就是膜腔放气的那一瞬间），而从风洞启动到风洞稳定运行结束其时间总长也仅为200ms左右。 In addition, the start time tunnel refers to artificially induce tunnel open time (layman's terms is the film chamber deflated the moment), and from tunnel to tunnel stable operation start time of the end of its overall length of only 200ms about. 那么如此短的时间对于测试设备提出了较高的要求，必须足够的灵敏、而且测量的时序是可控可调的。 Then such a short time for test equipment put forward higher requirements, they must be sufficiently sensitive and controllable measurement timing is adjustable. 否则可能测量还未开始，风洞就已经运行结束，那么就无法测量真实流场的参数。 Doing so may measure has not yet begun, the wind tunnel has been run over, so the true flow field parameters can not be measured. 所以测试设备的测量时刻必须刚好是在风洞运行的时间内或是稍微提前于风洞运行。 So the measurement time test equipment must be exactly in the wind tunnel is running slightly ahead of time or run in the wind tunnel. 另外高超声速炮风洞设备一般很难做长时间运行。 Also hypersonic wind tunnel equipment gun is generally difficult to do a long run. 因此，为了保证在高超声速流场建立的同时在气膜冷却模型100的表面形成冷却气膜， 则气膜冷却喷流的开启时刻要稍早于风洞流场的建立。 Therefore, in order to ensure at the same time in the hypersonic flow field created in the surface of the film cooling model 100 cooling air film is formed, the film cooling jets to establish the opening moments earlier in the wind tunnel flow field. 在本实施例中，参照图3,同步控制器14的输出端连接有放大触发信号的固态继电器13,固态继电器13连接有用于开启或者关闭气膜冷却喷流的电磁阀。 In this embodiment, referring to FIG. 3, the output of the synchronous controller 14 is connected to a trigger signal amplification solid-state relays 13, 13 are connected to solid state relay for opening or closing the solenoid valve film cooling jets. 当用于检测膜腔7内的压力值的压力传感器17检测到膜腔7 内压力突然升高时，压力传感器17的输出信号经放大器15放大后输入同步控制器14,同步控制器14按照预先设置的时序输出一个低电平触发信号，该触发信号再经固态继电器13 升压后触发电磁阀开启冷却喷流，从触发信号到开启冷却喷流，通常需要50ms，从而保证了高超声速流场与冷却喷流的同步。 When the pressure sensor for detecting a pressure value of 7 inside the film into the film chamber 17 detects a sudden increase in pressure chamber 7, the output signal of the pressure sensor 17 through the amplifier input synchronous controller 14 after 15 amplification, synchronous controller 14 in accordance with a pre- The timing is set to output a low level trigger signal, the trigger signal booster after 13 solid state relay trigger the solenoid valve open cooling jets, from the trigger signal to turn on cooling jets, usually 50ms, thus ensuring the hypersonic flow field synchronized with cooling jets.
 参照图4,在本实施例中，气膜冷却模型100的上游设计有气膜冷却喷口10,该气膜冷却喷口10具有先收缩后扩张的型面，能将气流加速至超声速。  Referring to FIG. 4, in this embodiment, the upstream design film cooling model 100 has film cooling vents 10, the film cooling vents 10 has a first contraction after expansion profile, can accelerate to supersonic airflow. 而气流的来源由气瓶经气路管道进入喷口前的驻室再通过该气膜冷却喷口10加速喷出。 The source of the gas stream from the cylinder through the air conduit into the plenum and through the vents in front of the film cooling vents 10 to accelerate emitted. 为了控制气流的开关，在气路上设置了电磁阀，并将电磁阀的控制信号线经固态继电器13连接至同步控制器14。 In order to control the air flow switch, set the gas on the way solenoid valve and solenoid valve control signal line 13 is connected via a solid state relay to the synchronous controller 14. 当同步控制器14输出触发信号时，电磁阀打开，形成冷却喷流B，与此同时，经高超声速炮风洞建立了高超声速流场A，在高超声速流场A与冷却喷流B之间形成薄薄的冷却气膜，设置在气膜冷却模型100表面的热流传感器11用于检测在高超声速流场A作用下的冷却喷流B的瞬态热流数据。 When synchronous controller 14 outputs a trigger signal, the solenoid valve is opened, a cooling jet B, at the same time, through the establishment of a hypersonic wind tunnel gun hypersonic flow field A, in the hypersonic flow field A and B of the cooling jet cooling air is formed between the thin film provided on the surface of the heat flux sensor 100 film cooling model 11 for detecting a cooling in the hypersonic flow field of the jet effect A transient heat flow data B.
 现有的模型表面热流测量技术可分为两类：一类是进行大面积测量的热图技术； 另一类是基于传感器的热流测量技术。  existing model surface heat flow measurement techniques can be divided into two categories: one is a large area measuring heat map technology; the other is based on heat flux sensor measurement technology. 其中，热图技术包括红外热图、色变热图、相变热图和荧光热图等。 Among them, the heat map technology, including infrared image, the mere mention of a heat map, phase change heat maps and fluorescence heat maps. 这类技术一次实验就可得到全场范围的热流分布，无需在模型上打孔，且显示比较直观，是一种基于光学测量技术的热流测量方法。 Such techniques can get an experiment heat flux distribution range of the audience, without drilling on the model, and display more intuitive, is a heat flow measurement based on optical measurement technology. 但这类方法测量系统复杂，价格高；受成像系统影响，曲率变化较大处会失真；作为指示剂的色变、相变材料喷涂工艺较严。 But such methods complex measurement systems, high prices; imaging systems affected by the change in the curvature at large distorted; as an indicator color change, phase change material coating process more stringent. 一般来说，现有的热图技术响应时间相对较长，适合于运行时间较长的风洞，而炮风洞的热图技术仍处于研究阶段。 In general, the existing heat map technology is relatively long response time, suitable for long-running wind tunnel, wind tunnel and gun heat map technology is still in the research stage. 基于传感器的热流测量技术利用传热传感器（如薄膜传热传感器，薄壁或厚壁量热计等）测量局部点的热流。 Based on heat flux sensor measurement technology using heat sensors (eg film heat sensors, thin-walled or thick-walled calorimeter, etc.) measuring heat flow localized points. 这类技术发展历史较长，比较成熟，属于经典测量技术一类，虽然其测试空间精度有限，且要在模型上打传感器安装孔，多少改变了局部几何形状，从而引进测量误差，但由于其精度高、响应快，测试设备简单，仍然作为主要测试手段被广泛采用。 Such a long history of technology development, more mature, belongs to a class of classical measurement techniques, although its test space limited accuracy, and to fight the sensor mounting hole on the model, the number of changes the local geometry, thereby introducing measurement error, but because of its high precision, fast response, simple test equipment, still as the primary means of testing is widely used.
在本实施例中，采用基于传感器的热流测量技术，参照图5,热流传感器11的测热电路包括恒压源UO及多个相互并联的电桥电路。  In the present embodiment, the measurement technique based on heat flux sensor, with reference to FIG. 5, the measured heat flux sensor circuit 11 includes a constant voltage source and a plurality of UO bridge circuit connected in parallel with each other. 电桥电路的为惠斯通电桥电路，其中桥臂电阻R、Rf、Rs均为精密电阻，桥臂电阻Rs与薄膜热敏电阻Rd串联。 Bridge circuit for Wheatstone bridge circuit in which the bridge arm resistance R, Rf, Rs are precision resistors, the bridge arm resistance Rs in series with the film thermistor Rd. 桥臂电阻Rf、Rs均按照薄膜热敏电阻Rd在室温下的阻值进行搭配，以使得电桥电路在室温下的初始输出尽量小，避免实验中输出电压超过数据采集系统的量程。 Bridge arm resistance Rf, Rs Rd accordance film thermistor resistance at room temperature to match, so that the bridge circuit Initial output at room temperature as small as possible to avoid the output voltage exceeds the experiment data acquisition system range. 其中，薄膜热敏电阻Rd与电桥电路的输出电压值Ui之间的关系为： Wherein, the output voltage of the thin film thermistor bridge circuit Rd value and the relationship between the Ui:
 通过输出电压值Ui即可换算出薄膜热敏电阻Rd的阻值，而薄膜热敏电阻Rd的电阻温度关系在一定范围内具有良好的线形性，其关系可以用表示：  The converter output voltage Ui to the thin film thermistor resistance Rd, and Rd thermistor thin film resistance temperature relationship in a certain range with good linearity, the relationship can be expressed by:
 上式中，RO为薄膜热敏电阻在0°C时的阻值，Ct为电阻温度系数，AR为电阻变化量，AT为温度变化量。  In the above formula, RO is a thin film thermistor resistance at 0 ° C when, Ct temperature coefficient of resistance, AR for the resistance change amount, AT is the temperature variation.
 较佳地，热流传感器11为多个，在气膜冷却模型100表面形成热流传感器阵列。  Preferably, the heat flux sensor is more than 11, 100 film cooling model surface heat flux sensor array is formed. 由于各个热流传感器11的阻值不同，需要针对各个热流传感器11分别设置电桥电路。 Due to the different resistance of each heat flux sensor 11, we need to set the bridge circuit 11 for each heat flux sensor.
 根据本发明的另一方面，还提供一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法，参照图6,包括以下步骤：  According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a gun on a hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling transient heat flux test methods, with reference to FIG. 6, comprising the steps of:
 步骤SlO:开启高超声速炮风洞；  Step SlO: Open hypersonic wind tunnel gun;
 本实施例中，将高超声速炮风洞的高压段1、低压段2及膜腔7内充入不同压力的气体，并人为促使膜腔7快速放气，风洞启动。 Example  This, the hypersonic wind tunnel of high pressure gun paragraph 1, section 2, and the low-pressure chamber filled membrane 7 different gas pressures, and in order to induce membrane chamber 7 quickly deflated, wind tunnel starts. 由于压差升高导致靠近高压段1 一侧的高压段膜片4破裂，高压段1内的高压气体进入膜腔7,使膜腔7内压力瞬间升高。 Due to increased pressure leads to high-pressure section of the diaphragm near the side of the high pressure section 1 4 burst, high-pressure section 1 inside the high-pressure gas into the film chamber 7, so that the internal pressure transiently increased 7 membrane cavity.
 步骤S20 :检测高超声速炮风洞膜腔7内的压力值；  Step S20: Detection of hypersonic wind tunnel mold cavity pressure cannons within 7;
 膜腔7设有用于检测膜腔7内压力值的压力传感器17,当膜腔7的压力值瞬间升高时，压力传感器17生成阶跃信号。  The mold cavity 7 is provided with a pressure sensor 7 for detecting the inner pressure chamber 17 of the membrane, the membrane when the pressure chamber 7 is increased instantaneous value, the pressure sensor 17 generates a step signal.
 步骤S30 :当膜腔7内的压力值瞬间升高时，开启气膜冷却喷流以使得位于实验舱9内的气膜冷却模型100表面形成的冷却气膜不晚于高超声速炮风洞的建立；  Step S30: When the pressure inside the film chamber 7 instantaneous value increases, the opening film cooling jets so located JEM 100 surface film cooling model 9 formed within the cooling air film is not later than the hypersonic guns build a wind tunnel;
 在本实施例中，压力传感器17经放大器15连接同步控制器14,同步控制器14的输出端经固态继电器13连接电磁阀，电磁阀位于给气膜冷却喷口10提供气源的气路上，电磁阀用于控制气路的导通或者关闭。  In this embodiment, the pressure sensor 17 through the amplifier 15 is connected synchronous controller 14, the output of synchronous controller 14 via the solenoid valve 13 is connected to solid state relay, solenoid valve is to provide film cooling vents 10 gas supply gas way solenoid valve for controlling the gas path turned on or off. 当膜腔7内的压力值瞬间升高时，压力传感器17输出的阶跃信号经放大器15放大后输出给同步控制器14,同步控制器14按照预设的工作时序生成触发信号。 When the pressure inside the chamber 7 instant film increases, the pressure sensor 17 outputs a step signal amplification through the amplifier output after 15 to 14 synchronous controller, synchronous controller 14 according to a preset operation timing trigger signal is generated. 本发明实施例通过检测风洞的模腔7内的压力并根据检测的压力触发气膜的建立时机，既保证了气膜冷却流场早于或者同步于超声速气流流场的建立，又避免气膜的过早建立以保证热流传感器不过载，从而为精准测量高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据提供了条件，且通过同步控制器的工作时序的控制，保证了风洞运行、气膜运行、及热流测量三者的同步。 7 cases of pressure within the cavity by detecting the wind tunnel and trigger the establishment of embodiment of the invention the film based on the timing of gas pressure testing, both to ensure the film cooling flow field prior to or sync to build a supersonic air flow field, but also to avoid gas premature establishment of the film to ensure that the heat flux sensor is not overloaded, so as to accurately measure the hypersonic flow under conditions of film cooling transient heat flow data to provide the conditions and timing of work by synchronizing the controller controls to ensure that the wind tunnel run , film running, and heat flow measurements three synchronization. 本实施例中，同步控制器14输出的触发信号电压只有5V，经过固态继电器13将触发信号的电压提升至24V，以触发电磁阀打开，从而在气膜冷却喷口10 处形成冷却喷流B，冷却喷流B覆盖气膜冷却模型100的表面。 In this embodiment, the trigger signal voltage synchronous controller 14 outputs only 5V, through the solid state relay 13 will trigger voltage signals up to 24V, in order to trigger the solenoid valve is opened, thereby forming a cooling jet B in the film-cooling vents 10, cooling jet surface covering film cooling model B 100.
 步骤S40 :测量气膜冷却模型100表面的热流数据。  Step S40: measuring surface heat flow data 100 film cooling model.
 气膜冷却模型100的表面设置热流传感器11，热流传感器11检测气膜冷却模型100表面的热流数据。  surface of the film cooling heat flux sensor model 100 set 11 heat flow data 100 surface heat flux sensor 11 detects film cooling model. 优选地，本实施例中个，在在气膜冷却模型100表面分别有多个热流传感器11，以形成热流传感器阵列，用于测量同一时刻气膜冷却模型100表面多个位置的热流数据。 Preferably, in this embodiment months, in the 100 surface film cooling model has multiple heat sensors 11 respectively, to form a heat flux sensor array for measuring the same time film cooling model 100 surface heat flow data in multiple locations. 热流传感器阵列的输出数据经数字信号采集器12存储至计算机16内以供后续的分析。 The output data of the heat flow through the sensor array 16 in the digital signal acquisition 12 stores to the computer for subsequent analysis.
 优选地，热流传感器11在执行步骤SlO之前已处于工作状态，这样，当高超声速流场A与冷却喷流B形成时，热流传感器11能准确测量高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据，其中，气膜的开启时刻不过比超声速炮风洞的建立时刻提前过多，仅需比风洞运行早20ms左右，避免热流传感器11过载。  Preferably, the heat flux sensor 11 before performing the steps SlO been in working condition, so that when the hypersonic flow field A and B formed jet cooling, heat flux sensor 11 can be used to accurately measure the hypersonic flow under conditions of film cooling transient heat flow data, which open air film of the moment but more than supersonic wind tunnel gun too early to establish the moment, only around a wind tunnel running earlier than 20ms, to avoid the heat flux sensor 11 overloaded.
 优选地，本实施例中的热流传感器11包括恒压源电路及设于恒压源电路两端用于输出电压值的电桥电路，电桥电路的至少一个桥臂上设有薄膜热敏电阻。  Preferably, the embodiment of the heat flux sensor 11 of the present embodiment includes a constant voltage power supply circuit and at least one bridge circuit is provided at both ends of the constant voltage source for the bridge circuit output voltage value of the bridge circuit provided with a thin film of arm thermistor.
 图7示出了本发明优选实施例基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法的工作时序示意图。  FIG. 7 shows a schematic diagram of the invention is preferably based on a hypersonic wind tunnel operation timing gun film cooling transient heat flux test method embodiments. 本发明基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统及方法， 通过测量高超声速炮风洞膜腔7内的压力值，使得气膜冷却喷流的开启时刻稍微提前于风洞流场建立，以保证在风洞流场建立的同时，冷却喷流流场亦同时建立，从而为测量高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据提供了条件，且保证了热流传感器11不过载，精确测量在高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据。 Film cooling transient heat flux testing system and method based on hypersonic wind tunnel gun to the invention, by measuring the hypersonic wind tunnel gun chamber pressure membrane 7 is such that the turn-film cooling jet stream slightly ahead of the tunnel field establishment, to ensure at the same time the wind tunnel flow field established cooling jet flow field also while building, so as to measure the hypersonic flow under conditions of film cooling transient heat flow data to provide the conditions and to ensure that the heat sensor 11 However overload, accurate measurements in hypersonic gas to flow under conditions of film cooling transient heat flow data. 本发明实施例通过同步控制器14 的工作时序的控制，保证了风洞运行、气膜运行、及热流测量三者的同步。 Embodiments of the present invention work by synchronizing the timing controller 14 controls to ensure that the wind tunnel run, synchronized air film run, and heat flow measurements of all three.
 以上仅为本发明的优选实施例而已，并不用于限制本发明，对于本领域的技术人员来说，本发明可以有各种更改和变化。  The above is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention but not to limit the present invention, for those skilled in the art, the present invention can have various modifications and changes. 凡在本发明的精神和原则之内，所作的任何修改、 等同替换、改进等，均应包含在本发明的保护范围之内。 Any modification within the spirit and principles of the present invention, made, equivalent replacement, or improvement should be included within the scope of the present invention.
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