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Publication numberCN101341425 A
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 200680048112
PCT numberPCT/IB2006/054533
Publication date7 Jan 2009
Filing date30 Nov 2006
Priority date21 Dec 2005
Also published asEP1966635A2, US20090002807, WO2007072258A2, WO2007072258A3
Publication number200680048112.8, CN 101341425 A, CN 101341425A, CN 200680048112, CN-A-101341425, CN101341425 A, CN101341425A, CN200680048112, CN200680048112.8, PCT/2006/54533, PCT/IB/2006/054533, PCT/IB/2006/54533, PCT/IB/6/054533, PCT/IB/6/54533, PCT/IB2006/054533, PCT/IB2006/54533, PCT/IB2006054533, PCT/IB200654533, PCT/IB6/054533, PCT/IB6/54533, PCT/IB6054533, PCT/IB654533
InventorsBHW亨德里克斯, S凯珀
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Fluid focus lens to isolate or trap small particulate matter
CN 101341425 A
The invention provides a beam manipulation member for use in an optical tweezers system, the beam manipulation member comprising at least one optical element, being controllably deformable in order to act on a laser beam in response to signals coming from the optical tweezers system. The beam manipulation member may be used to change the focal distance of the optical tweezers system and also to deflect the laser beam.
Claims(8)  translated from Chinese
1、一种在光学镊子系统中使用的束操纵部件,该束操纵部件包括至少一个光学元件,其可控制地可变形,以响应于来自该光学镊子系统的信号而作用在激光束上。 1, the beam manipulation member for use in an optical tweezers system, the beam manipulation member comprising at least one optical element, which can be controllably deformable in response to a signal from the optical tweezers system acting on a laser beam.
2、 根据权利要求1所述的束操纵部件,还包括腔室,其包含第一介质、 第二介质、所述第一介质和所述第二介质之间的界面、以及界面控制装置, 其中,所述第一介质和所述第二介质中的一个用作所述光学元件。 2. The beam manipulation member according to claim 1, further comprising a chamber, comprising a first medium, the second medium, an interface between the first medium and the second medium, and interface control means, wherein , the first medium and the second medium is used as the optical element a.
3、 根据权利要求2所述的束操纵部件,其中,所述界面由一个或多个边缘段划定界限,并且其中,所述界面控制装置布置为各别地作用在所述边缘段上。 3, the beam manipulation member according to claim 2 or claim, wherein said interface consists of one or more edge segments delimited, and wherein said interface control means arranged to individually act on said edge segments.
4、 根据权利要求3所述的束操纵部件,其中,所述束操纵部件包括电润湿透镜,并且所述界面控制装置包括电极,该电极布置为提供单独的电压给所述边缘段的每一个。 4, the beam manipulation member according to claim 3, wherein said beam steering means comprises electrowetting lens and said interface control means comprises an electrode arranged to provide a separate voltage to each of said edge section a.
5、 根据权利要求3或4的任一项所述的束操纵部件,其中,所述光学元件呈现光轴并且相对于所述光轴是非对称地可变形的,并且其中,所述界面控制装置布置为以随时间变化的方式非对称地作用在所述边缘段上。 5, according to any one of the beam manipulation member 3 or 4, wherein said optical element presents an optical axis and asymmetrical with respect to the optical axis of the deformable, and wherein said interface control means arranged to time-varying manner asymmetrically acting on the edge of the segment.
6、 根据权利要求5所述的束操纵部件,其中,所述界面控制装置布置为以周期时间模式作用在所述界面上。 6, the beam manipulation member according to claim 5, wherein said interface control means is arranged to effect a periodic time pattern on the screen.
7、 一种光学镊子系统,包括根据权利要求1至6的任一项所述的束操纵部件。 7, an optical tweezers system comprising according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein one of the beam manipulation member.
8、 一种操纵包括可控制地可变形的光学元件的光学镊子系统的激光束的方法,该方法包括步骤: 接收用于所述激光束的操纵的设置点信号;-通过映射所述设置点到所述驱动信号的函数来计算用于所述光学元件的至少一个驱动信号;以及-利用来自该光学镊子系统的所述信号驱动所述光学元件。 8. A method of manipulating a laser beam comprising optical tweezers system controllably deformable optical element, the method comprising the steps of: receiving a set point signal for operating said laser beam; - by mapping the set point the function of the drive signal for calculating the at least one optical element driving signal; and - the use of the driving signal from the optical tweezers system is an optical element. 9、根据权利要求8所述的方法,其中,-所述设置点限定所述激光束的焦点的定位,其中,所述函数包括-映射所述驱动信号到限定所述可控制地可变形的光学元件的变形的至少一个参数,-映射所述变形到所述光学元件的至少一个光学特性,以及-映射所述光学特性到所述激光束的至少一个参数。 9. The method of claim 8, wherein, - defining the set point of the positioning of the focal point of the laser beam, wherein said function comprises - mapping the drive signal to define the controllably deformable at least one optical element deformation parameter, - mapping the deformation of the optical element to the at least one optical characteristic, and - at least one parameter to the mapping of the optical characteristic of the laser beam.
Description  translated from Chinese

隔离或囚禁小的微粒物质的流体聚焦透镜 Fluid isolation or confinement of small particulate matter focusing lens

本发明涉及光学镊子系统和用于操作该系统的方法。 The present invention relates to optical tweezers system and method for operating the system. 尤其是,本发明致力于包括在光学镊子系统中的具有可变形光学元件的束操纵部件。 In particular, the present invention is directed to an optical tweezers system comprises a beam manipulation member with a deformable optical element.

在例如生物学、物理学、纳米制造中发现了光学镊子的应用,并且作为用于小型化的机器的光学致动器。 For example, biology, physics, nano-manufacturing optical tweezers found in applications, and is used as an optical compact machine actuator.

光学镊子的原理是基于利用辐射压力的力。 The principle of optical tweezers is based on the use of radiation pressure force. 强聚焦的激光束能够捕捉 Strongly focused laser beam to capture

和抓住从nm到pm的大小范围中(介电材料)的粒子。 And seize from nm to pm size range (dielectric material) particles. 此技术使得研究和操纵如原子、分子(甚至大)和小的介电球的粒子成为可能。 This technology allows researchers and manipulate such atoms, molecules (even large) and small dielectric spheres particles becomes possible. 光学镊子的基本性质是粒子在光强分布中成为被囚禁的。 The basic properties of optical tweezers are particles become trapped in the light intensity distribution. 光以朝向强度达到其最大值的点的梯度强度分布在粒子上施加力。 Light intensity reaches point toward its maximum intensity gradient exerts a force on the particle distribution. 结果,例如,粒子能够被囚禁在光束的焦点中。 As a result, for example, the particles can be trapped in the focus of the beam. 改变焦点的位置也改变粒子在空间的位置。 Change the position of the focus also changes the position of the particle in space. 使用马达或压电致动器用于移置透镜或倾斜反射镜的机械装置是已知的。 Using a motor or piezo actuator for displacing the lens or tilting a mirror are known mechanical means. 这些机械装置的缺点是它们复杂并且需要易受磨损影响的机械地活动的部分。 The disadvantages of these mechanical devices is that they require complex and affected parts subject to wear mechanically activities. 此外,每个附加的自由度通常需要专用的致动器并且可能地还需要诸如透镜或反射镜的附加的光学元件。 Furthermore, each additional degree of freedom normally requires a dedicated actuator and possibly also require additional optical elements such as lenses or mirrors. 因此,具有三个平移和一个旋转自由度的范例光学镊子系统变得复杂和相当昂贵的。 Thus, with three translational and examples optical tweezers system complicates a rotational degree of freedom and rather expensive.

本发明的目的是提供光学镊子中用于操纵激光束的机械装置的可选例。 Object of the present invention is to provide alternative embodiment the mechanical means to manipulate the laser beam for the optical tweezers.

根据本发明的一方面,提供了用于在光学镊子系统中使用的束操纵部件,该束操纵部件包括至少一个光学元件,其可控制地可变形,以响应于来自该光学镊子系统的信号而作用在激光束上。 According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a beam manipulation member for use in an optical tweezers system, the beam manipulation member comprising at least one optical element, which can be controllably deformable in response to a signal from the optical tweezers system and acting on the laser beam.

本发明的此方面的束操纵部件提供光学镊子系统中的束控制。 This aspect of the present invention, the beam manipulation member provided in an optical tweezers system to control the beam. 其有能力承担光学镊子系统中当前使用的基本上机械的束操纵装置的功能性。 Its ability to assume substantially functional mechanical beam steering apparatus optical tweezers system currently in use. 同时,本发明的束操纵部件不易受到上述机械装置的缺陷的影响。 At the same time, the beam manipulation member of the present invention is less susceptible to defects of said mechanical means. 由于其不同的配置,诸如例如机械公差,其甚至免除了一个或多个缺陷。 Because of their different configurations, such as for example mechanical tolerances, which even eliminating one or more defects. 束例如是 Beam, for example,

光学镊子系统中使用的用于囚禁粒子、细菌等的激光束。 Optical tweezers system used for confinement of particles, bacteria and other laser beam. 由于光学元件的变形,束操纵可以比先前的布置中更灵活。 Since the deformation of the optical element, beam manipulation may be more flexible than the previous arrangement of. 其也提供了减小束的路径中的光学元件的数量的机会。 It also provides a reduced amount of the beam path of the optical element opportunity. 可以合并至今每个需要区别的光学元件的数个功能。 Has several functions can be combined need to distinguish between each optical element.

束操纵应当理解为对束的作用,通过它,当束通过束操纵部件时,一个或多个束的性质能够被改变。 It should be understood to effect beam steering of the beam, through which, when the beam passes through the beam manipulation member, one or more properties of the beam can be changed. 尤其是,束的几何性质易于由束操纵部件改变,诸如束方向、其会聚、其横截面的形状,仅举数例。 In particular, the geometric properties of the beam by the beam manipulation member readily change, such as the beam direction, its convergence, the shape of its cross section, to name a few.

光学元件描绘直接作用在束上的部件。 The optical element depicted acts directly on the beam member. 其可以是折射光学元件或反射光学元件。 It may be a refractive optical element or a reflective optical element. 光学元件还可以呈现衍射效应。 The optical element may also exhibit diffraction effects. 光学元件是可变形的,使得能够改变光学元件的内部空间材料分布。 The optical element is deformable, so that the internal space of the material capable of changing distribution of the optical element. 诸如折射或反射的光学效应典型地发生在传播介质突然地或逐渐地改变的位置。 Refraction or reflection optical effects such as typically occurs abruptly or gradually changing propagation medium position. 从而,改变光学元件的材料分布改变光学元件的光学行为。 Thus, changing the material distribution of the optical element changes the optical behavior of the optical element. 使用的光学元件的优点是其材料分布是可控制的。 Advantages of the use of the optical element is its material distribution is controllable. 通过利用合适的信号驱动束操纵部件和包括的光学元件,光学元件发生变形,其依次改变束操纵部件的光学行为。 By using the appropriate signal to drive the beam steering unit and an optical element, the optical element comprises deformed, which in turn change the optical behavior of the beam manipulation member. 换句话说,束操纵部件实现了驱动信号到光学行为的映射。 In other words, the beam steering unit to achieve a drive signal to the optical behavior of the mapping. 用于束操纵部件的驱动信号来自光学镊子系统。 Drive signals for the beam manipulation member come from the optical tweezers system. 从而,提供光学镊子系统来控制束操纵动作。 Thus, providing an optical tweezers system to control the beam maneuvers. 在此上下文中, 应当注意,生成驱动信号的似乎独立的控制器也应当理解为光学镊子系统的部分。 In this context, it should be noted that it seems a separate controller generates the driving signal is also to be understood as part of the optical tweezers system. 原因是控制例如粒子的位置是光学镊子系统的基本功能。 The reason is that the control such as the position of the particle is the basic function of an optical tweezers system.

根据本发明的另一方面,束操纵部件还包括腔室,其包含第一介质、 第二介质、所述第一介质和所述第二介质之间的截面、以及界面控制装置, 其中所述第一介质和所述第二介质中的一个用作所述光学元件。 According to another aspect of the present invention, the beam manipulation member further comprises a chamber containing a first medium, the second medium, the cross-section between the first medium and the second medium, and interface control means, wherein said a first medium and a second medium as the optical element.

腔室典型地具有恒定的体积。 Typically, the chamber has a constant volume. 第一介质和第二介质的体积也典型地也是恒定的。 Volume of the first medium and the second medium is also typically a constant. 第一和第二介质例如是具有不同光学性质的两种不相溶的流体。 For example, the first and second media having different optical properties of two immiscible fluids. 如果两种流体具有几乎相同的密度,则重力对束操纵部件的操作没有实质的影响。 If the two fluids have almost the same density, the gravitational force no substantial effect on the operation of the beam manipulation member. 在两种介质之间存在界面,其形状依赖于数个因素,诸如表面张力、可湿性、或两种介质的每一种的毛细效应。 In the presence of the interface between the two media, whose shape is dependent on several factors, the surface tension, wettability, or each of the two media such as a capillary effect. 能够通过界面控制装置影响界面是有利的,导致界面的例如改变的形状、位置、或方向。 Can affect the interface by interface control device is advantageous, for example, lead to changes in the shape, position, or orientation interface.

根据本发明的另一方面,界面由一个或多个边缘段划定界限,并且界面控制装置布置为各别地作用在所述边缘段上。 By one or more edge segments delimit, and interface control means is arranged on the individual acts on the edge of the section according to the present invention, on the other hand, the interface.

在界面由单个边缘段划定界限的情况下,界面以均匀的方式从所有侧作用。 In a single edge segment delimit the circumstances interface, the interface in a uniform manner from all the side effects. 用于具有单个边缘段的该布置的范例是圆形界面或椭圆形界面。 For example with a single edge segment of the arrangement is circular or oval screen interface. 当仅存在单个边缘时,能够预期相对于光学元件的重力中心的光学元件的基本对称的变形。 When there is only a single edge, it can be expected to substantially symmetrical with respect to the center of gravity of the optical elements of the optical element deformation. 在更普遍的多个边缘段的情况下,其中每个段由界面控制装置各别地控制,能够获得界面的更灵活的配置。 In the case of the more general plurality of edge segments, wherein each segment consists of interface control device individually controlled, you can get more flexible configuration interface. 尤其是,界面的不对称的形状也是可能的。 In particular, the asymmetric shape of the interface are possible. 对称的概念可以指旋转对称(例如相对于光学元件闲置时的光轴),或镜面对称,依赖于界面形状。 The concept of symmetry may refer to rotationally symmetric (e.g., with respect to the optical axis of the optical element when idle), or mirror symmetry, depending on the interface shape. 各别地控制边缘段的能力在垂直于光学元件的闲置状态光轴的平面中提供附加的自由度。 Ability to control edge segments individually to provide additional degrees of freedom in the idle state of the optical element perpendicular to the optical axis plane.

根据本发明的另一方面,束操纵部件包括电润湿透镜,并且界面控制装置包括电极,布置为提供单独的电压给所述边缘段的每一个。 According to another aspect of the present invention, the beam manipulation member comprises an electrowetting lens and the interface control means comprises electrodes arranged to provide a separate voltage to each of said edge segments.

一个电润湿透镜利用当暴露于电场时导电流体和不导电流体反应不同的事实。 An electrowetting lens use when exposed to an electric field when the conductive fluid and a non-conductive fluid reaction different facts. 尤其是,由于腔室壁表面的改变的可湿性,与腔室的壁接触的表 In particular, due to the change in the chamber wall surface wettability, and contact the chamber wall table

面往往对施加的电场起反应。 An electric field is applied to the surface often react. 所需的电场由是界面控制装置的部分的电极产生。 Electrode portion of the required electric field generated by the interface control device generates. 除对应于一个或多个边缘段的一个或多个电极外,提供接地电极作为公共电接地。 In addition to corresponding to one or more edges of one or more segments of the outer electrode, a ground electrode provided as a common electrical ground. 此接地电极到边缘段电极的每一个可以具有相同的距离。 This ground electrode to each edge segment electrodes may have the same distance. 其甚至可以与导电流体接触。 It may even contact with the conductive fluid. 在每个具有不同电势的数个电极的情况下, 得到的电场在电极之间呈现过渡。 In the case where a plurality of electrodes each having a different potential, the resulting electric field presents transitions between the electrodes. 典型地,期望在不同的边缘段之间平滑地过渡。 Typically, the desired smooth transitions between the different edge segments. 通过保持电极小并且在两相邻电极之间提供电力耐久路径能够实现这。 By maintaining the electrodes small and providing a durable power path between two adjacent electrodes that can be achieved. 依赖于此路径的电阻,电流会从一个电极流动到另一个电极,这沿路径引起电压降。 Depend on this path of resistance, current will flow from one electrode to the other electrode, which causes a voltage drop along the path. 如果为了获得特别的界面形状而不期望平滑的过渡,则电极基本彼此相邻地放置,它们之间仅有小的绝缘以避免漏电流和打火花。 If the particular shape of the interface in order to obtain a smooth transition without expectation, the electrode positioned substantially adjacent to each other, only a small insulation between them to prevent leakage current and sparking. 根据本申请的另一方面,光学元件呈现光轴并且相对于光轴是非对称地可变形的,并且界面控制装置布置为以随时间变化的方式非对称地作用在边缘段上。 According to another aspect, the optical element presents an optical axis and asymmetrical with respect to the optical axis deformable, and interface control means arranged to time-varying manner act asymmetrically on the edge of the application segment.

相对于光轴非对称地可变形的光学元件的优点是,以此方式束可以改变其横截面形状。 Advantages with respect to the optical axis asymmetrically deformable optical element, the beam in this way can change its cross-sectional shape. 如果束被聚焦,则光学元件的非对称的变形也导致非对称的焦点。 If the beam is focused, the asymmetrical deformation of the optical element also results in asymmetric focus. 与界面控制装置在边缘段上的随时间变化的作用组合,能够绕束轴旋转非对称的焦点。 And interface control means changes in the edge section of the effect of the combination over time, can be non-symmetrical about the axis of the beam focus. 由于绕束轴的非对称的焦点旋转,在束的焦点处囚禁的粒子经历扭矩。 Since around the beam axis of rotation asymmetric focus, the focal point of the particles in the beam of captivity experience torque. 因此,优点是通过激光束,能够引起粒子旋转。 Therefore, by the advantage of the laser beam can cause the particles to rotate. 为达此目的,可以以圆形模式制动电极段。 To this end, the braking mode may be circular electrode segment. 此效果难以通过全机械 This effect is difficult to pass the whole machinery

(all-mechanical)束操纵装置实现,因为诸如变形透镜(沿两个主轴方向不 (All-mechanical) beam steering device to achieve, because such an anamorphic lens (not along two axis directions

同的透镜曲率)的特别的透镜必须通过例如电马达的方式绕光轴旋转。 With the lens curvature) special lens must be such as electrically motor rotating about the optical axis. 光学元件的光轴规定为光学元件闲置的情形,即没有电极施加电场。 The optical axis of a predetermined optical element is an optical element case idle, i.e. no electric field is applied to the electrode. 实际上, 光学元件的真实的光轴是可变化的。 In fact, the real axis of the optical element is variable. 此外,光学元件的光轴可以呈现弯曲, 表示光轴的传播方向由光学元件改变。 In addition, the optical axis of the optical element may present a curved, represented by the propagation direction of the optical axis of the optical element changes.

根据本发明的另一方面,界面控制装置布置为以周期时间模式作用在界面上。 According to another aspect of the present invention, the interface control device arranged to interface with periodic time pattern effect.

提供周期时间模式的优点是,与通过旋转激光束的非对称焦点而施加扭矩于粒子组合,能够以永久方式提供扭矩。 Advantage of providing a periodic time pattern is asymmetric with focus by rotating the laser beam applying torque to the particle composition, it is possible to provide a permanent torque. 这能够用于在多种应用中操作小型化的旋转机器,诸如泵、阀、离心机等。 This can be used to operate small rotating machines in a variety of applications, such as pumps, valves, centrifuges and the like. 周期时间模式还容许激光束的焦点的振荡运动。 Cycle Time mode also allows an oscillating movement of the laser beam focus. 在包括数个位置的来回旅程上逮捕诸如粒子、细菌等的样品也是可能的。 On several positions including round trip arrest such particles, bacteria and other samples are also possible. 在每个位置,样品经历特定的测试,例如测量样品对某种物质的反应。 In each position, the samples were subjected to specific tests, such as measuring the reaction sample to a substance. 光学镊子系统的测量纳牛和Kl牛范围中的力的能力可以用于测量样品和给定物质之间的吸引力。 Measurement satisfied cows and cattle range Kl optical tweezers system capacity can be used to measure the force of a given sample and attraction between the substances. 本发明的束操纵部件可以用于在样品载体的第一位置处采集样品,将它运输到多个测试位置,并且最终将它运输到离开位置。 Beam manipulation member of the present invention can be used in the first position of the sample carrier at the sample collection, transport it to a plurality of the test position, and finally leave it to the transport position. 其后,焦点回到第一位置。 Thereafter, the focus returns to the first position. 可以通过短暂地关断和通过激光束来实现样品的抓住和释放。 By briefly off and the laser beam to achieve a sample of catch and release. 可以设想其它的可选例,诸如移置样品载体下的焦点,使得样品到达样品载体上。 It is contemplated that other alternative embodiment, such as shifting the focus of the sample carrier under set so that the sample reaches the sample carrier.

根据本发明的一方面,光学镊子系统包括如上述的束操纵部件。 According to one aspect, the present invention is an optical tweezers system comprises a beam manipulation member as described above. 光学镊子系统从束操纵部件的改变激光束的方向和焦距而无需机械元件的能力受益。 Optical tweezers system components from the beam manipulator to change the direction and focus of the laser beam and the ability to benefit without mechanical components. 束操纵部件可以执行光学镊子系统中所需的所有基本束控 Beam manipulation member may perform all the basic beam control optical tweezers system required

制功能。 System function. 调整焦距和在xy平面中移动焦点在这些基本功能中,xy平面是基本垂直于光学镊子系统的物镜的光轴的平面。 Adjust the focus and moving the focus in the xy plane in these basic functions, xy plane is a plane substantially perpendicular to the optical axis of the objective lens of the optical tweezers system. 然而,某些功能仍然由机械元件执行。 However, certain functions are still performed by the mechanical components. 此外,可以预期使用根据本发明的两个或更多个束操纵部件, 每个承担特定的功能。 In addition, the intended use of the present invention according to two or more beam steering components, each bear a specific function. 可能的功能分开可以是一个束操纵部件提供焦距调整,第二束操纵部件承担xy平面中的偏转,而第三束操纵部件承担使得焦点不对称并随时间旋转它的功能。 Possible functions can be separated from the beam manipulation member provides a focal distance adjustment, a second beam manipulation member assumed xy plane deflection, and a third beam manipulation member to bear and with time such that rotation of the asymmetric focus its function. 提出的光学镊子系统的另一优点是束操纵部件比已知的机械系统较不容易受到磨损。 Another advantage of the proposed optical tweezers system is that the beam manipulation members than the known mechanical systems less susceptible to wear.

根据本发明的一方面, 一种操纵光学镊子系统的激光束的方法,光学镊子系统包括可控制地可变形的光学元件,该方法包括步骤: According to an aspect of the present invention, a method of manipulating a laser beam of an optical tweezers system, the optical tweezers system comprising a controllably deformable optical element, the method comprising the steps of:

-接收用于所述激光束的操纵的设置点信号; - Manipulation of the set point signal for receiving said laser beam;

-通过映射该设置点到该驱动信号的函数来计算用于所述光学元件的至 - By the function of the drive signal to map the set point is calculated for the optical element to

少一个驱动信号;以及 At least one driving signal; and

-利用来自该光学镊子系统的该信号驱动该光学元件。 - Using the signal from the optical tweezers system driving the optical element. 提出的方法的优点是其容许控制可控制地可变形的光学元件。 Advantage of the proposed method is that it can be controlled to allow optical components to be deformed. 该控制可以提供在开环(即无反馈)或闭环(即有反馈)中。 The control can be provided in an open loop (ie no feedback) or closed (ie feedback) in. 在多数情况下,设置点信号对应于用户希望实现的激光束的参数(例如激光束的方向、激光束的焦距、激光束的对称/不对称)。 In most cases, the set point signal corresponds to the user desired parameter (e.g., the direction of the laser beam, the focal length of the laser beam, the laser beam symmetry / asymmetry) of the laser beam to achieve. 可变形光学元件是用于将设置点信号转变为对应的效应的部件中的一个。 Deformable optical element is used to set point signal into a corresponding effect of parts in one. 同样,光学元件具有给定的传递函数, 映射输入信号到输出效应。 Similarly, the optical element has a given transfer function, mapping input signal to an output effect. 在此范例中,设置点信号(或从设置点推得的信号)用作用于可变形光学元件的输入。 In this example, the set point signal (or push from the set point signal) is used as a deformable optical element input. 用于光学元件的输入也可以视作光学元件的驱动信号。 An input for an optical element may also be regarded as a drive signal of the optical element. 光学元件的输出效应可以视作在通过光学元件的激光束上的作用。 Output effect of the optical element can be regarded as acting on the optical element of a laser beam. 输入和输出之间的关系经常通过传递函数描述。 The relationship between input and output is often described by the transfer function. 此传递函数限定例如输出对输入的依赖关系。 This transfer function is defined, for example output to input dependencies. 如果期望某一输出,可以针对输入解传递函数以找出对应的输入。 If a desired output function for the input solution can be passed to find the corresponding input. 计算的输入然后用作用于光学元件的驱动信号。 Calculation is then used as an input signal for driving the optical element. 因为可变形光学元件是耐磨的硬的主体,在光学元件的寿命范围中传递函数保持基本恒定。 Since the deformable optical element is a rigid body wear, the transfer function remains substantially constant over the life span of the optical element. 此外,与可变形光学元件的机械对应物相比,可变形光学元件典型地呈现改善的公差。 Moreover, compared with mechanical counterparts deformable optical element, the deformable optical element typically presents improved tolerances. 因为在传递函数和其解中,公差是难以处理的,所以可变形光学元件的传递函数可以比机械地控制的光学元件或布置简单和易于解答。 Because the transfer function and its solution, the tolerances are difficult to handle, so the deformable optical element transfer function can be controlled mechanically than optical elements or arrangements simple and easy to answer.

在本发明的另一方面中,设置点限定激光束的焦点的定位。 In another aspect of the present invention, the set point defines the positioning of the laser beam focus. 功能包括映射驱动信号到限定可控制地可变形的光学元件的变形的至少一个参数, 映射变形到光学元件的至少一个光学特性,以及映射光学特性到激光束的至少一个参数。 It includes a mapping function defining a drive signal to controllably deformable optical element deformable at least one parameter, mapped to the deformation of the at least one optical element of the optical characteristics, and optical characteristics mapped to the at least one parameter of the laser beam.

光学元件可以制作为包括多个子系统的系统。 The optical element can be made to include a plurality of sub-systems. 第一子系统描述驱动信号如何影响光学元件的变形。 A first subsystem describes how the drive signal Deformation of the optical element. 此子系统的行为依赖于驱动信号的类型和利用的物理效应。 The behavior of this subsystem is dependent on the physical effects of the drive signal of the type and use. 例如,驱动信号可以是输入电压而子系统的输出可以是基于电润湿原理的透镜中的弯月面的曲率半径。 For example, the drive signal may be an input voltage and the output subsystem may be based on the principle of electrowetting radius of curvature of the meniscus lens. 第二子系统描述光学元件的变形和光学特性之间的关系。 The second subsystem describes the relationship between the deformation and optical characteristics of the optical element between. 光学元件的光学特性的范例是透镜的焦距。 Examples of the optical characteristics of the optical element is the focal length of the lens. 第三子系统描述光学元件的光学特性和激光束的至少一个参数之间的关系。 Describe the optical characteristics of the laser beam and the optical elements of the relationship between the parameters of the at least one third subsystem. 激光束参数的范例例如是展开的束角或其传播方向。 Examples of laser beam parameters such as the expansion of the beam angle or direction of propagation.

光学镊子系统从作为束操纵组件的部分的可控制地可变形的光学元件受益。 Optical tweezers system to benefit from the optical element as a part of the beam steering assembly controllably deformable. 能够预期与利用传统的、机械地移置的或定向的元件的相同的结果。 It can be expected with the use of traditional, same result mechanically displaced or directional element. 能够克服这些传统机械元件的缺点。 Able to overcome the disadvantages of these conventional mechanical components. 此外,可变形光学元件提供用于束操纵的较大的灵活性。 Furthermore, the deformable optical element for beam manipulation offers greater flexibility.

附图说明 Brief Description

本发明的这些和其它方面将从以下描述的实施例变得明显,并且将参照这些实施例阐述它们。 These and other aspects of the embodiment will be described below, the present invention will become apparent and will be described with reference to these embodiments them.

图1根据现有技术的光学镊子系统的图解视图; 1 a diagrammatic view of a prior art optical tweezers system of FIG;

图2是根据本发明的一个实施例的光学镊子系统的图解视图; Figure 2 is a diagrammatic view of an optical tweezers system according to one embodiment of the present invention;

图3是闲置状态中的光学元件的纵向截面; Figure 3 is a longitudinal cross section of the idle state of the optical element;

图4示出了在对称的激发状态中的图3的光学元件; Figure 4 shows a symmetrical excited state optical device of FIG. 3;

图5示出了在非对称的激发状态中的图3的光学元件; Figure 5 shows a state in asymmetric excitation optical element in FIG. 3;

图6是装备有如图3至5的光学元件的显微镜物镜的纵向截面; Figure 6 is a microscope equipped with an objective optical element 3-5 in FIG longitudinal section;

图7是用于光学镊子系统中的显微镜物镜的前透镜的图解透视图; Figure 7 is a diagrammatic perspective view of the front of the lens for optical tweezers system of the microscope objective;

图8是根据图7中的箭头VIII的显微镜前透镜的图解顶视图; Figure 8 is a diagrammatic top view of the front of the arrow VIII in FIG. 7 of the microscope lens;

图9示出了以上的束操纵部件的范例电极部署; Figure 9 shows examples of electrodes deployed above beam manipulation member;

图10是图9中描写的电极的电极电压随时间的描绘。 FIG. 10 is depicted in FIG. 9 electrode voltage electrodes over time is depicted.


图没有按照比例绘制并且不同的图中的相同的参考数字指引对应的元件。 Figure is not drawn to scale and the different elements in the figures the same reference numerals corresponding guidelines.

图1作为集团图解示出了现有技术的光学镊子。 Figure 1 shows a diagram as a group prior art optical tweezers. 光学镊子用于以高的感应压力操纵粒子。 Optical tweezers for manipulating a high pressure particle sensor. 在例如A.Ashkin和JM Dziedzic的"Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria", Science 1987, 2335: 1517-20中描述 For example A.Ashkin and JM Dziedzic's "Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria", Science 1987, 2335 in: 1517-20 described

了潜在的原理。 The underlying principles. 依赖于粒子的直径是小于还是大于所使用的光的波长,使用电偶极子近似或射线光学途径来分析光与粒子的相互作用。 Depends on the diameter of the particle is less than or greater than the wavelength of light used, the use of an electric dipole approximation or a ray optics means to analyze the interaction of light with particles. 当光由对象散射时,存在往往沿光的传播方向推动对象的散射力。 When the light scattering by the object, there is a propagation direction of light often push objects scattering power. 这称作作用于对象上的散射力。 This is called the scattering force acting on the object. 此外,所谓的梯度力也作用于对象上。 In addition, so-called gradient force acting on the object. 此梯度力具有两个主要效果。 This gradient force has two major effects. 第一个是对象被拖拉朝向束的中心,在此处,光强高于激光束的 The first is the object being pulled toward the center of the beam, where the light intensity is higher than the laser beam

外部区中。 External area. 当束强聚焦时,出现另外的效果。 When the beam is strong focus, it appears another effect. 这导致朝向焦点的强的光强梯度强度。 This led to strong intensity gradient strength toward the focus. 光以朝向强度达到其最大值的点的梯度强度分布在粒子上施加力。 Light intensity reaches point toward its maximum intensity gradient exerts a force on the particle distribution. 结果,对象被囚禁在光束的焦点上。 As a result, the object was imprisoned at the focal point of the beam. 在光学镊子系统中,焦点可以在三维上移动,即沿激光束的传播方向上和在垂直于传播方向的两个方向上。 In the optical tweezers system, the focus can be moved in three dimensions, i.e. along the propagation direction of the laser beam and the two directions perpendicular to the propagation direction on.

为达此目的,已知的光绪镊子系统包括以下部件。 To this end, the known dynasty tweezers system consists of the following components. 光学镊子系统100 呈现了激光路径104和观察光路106。 Optical tweezers system 100 presents the laser paths 104 and 106 observation light path. 激光源110产生激光束,激光束通过用于方便地通过和关断激光束的快门112。 Laser source 110 generates a laser beam, a laser beam is used by on and off easily by the shutter 112 of the laser beam. 扩束器114提供预定的束直径。 The beam expander 114 provides a predetermined beam diameter. 在描写的光学镊子系统中,用于明亮和偏振的激光的可变衰减器包括可旋转半波片116和固定的棱镜起偏器118。 Variable attenuator in the description of the optical tweezers system for the polarization of the laser light and includes a rotatable half-wave plate 116 and the fixed prism polarizer 118. 束控制器(beamsteerer)包括两个活动反射镜122和124,都安装在相同的垂直杆上。 Beam controller (beamsteerer) comprises two movable mirrors 122 and 124, are mounted in the same vertical rod. 需要注意,反射镜122 及回到激光源的光路实际上垂直于垂直轴附近的反射镜124。 Note that the mirror back to the laser source 122 and substantially perpendicular to the optical path of the mirror 124 close to the vertical axis. 为方便,在此将其绘制在相同的平面中。 For convenience, where it is drawn in the same plane.

沿激光束的路径进一步向下,用于操纵和齐焦化激光斑点的简单的1: 1望远镜布置包括固定的透镜128和活动的透镜126。 Along the path of the laser beam further downward, and for manipulating the laser spot parfocalization simple 1: 1 telescope arrangement comprises a fixed lens 128 and a lens 126 activities. 此两个相同的平面凸面透镜126和128放置分开的距离为它们的焦距的和,使得进入活动的透镜126的平行光将产生从固定的透镜128射出的相同束直径的平行光。 This same plane as the two convex lenses 126 and 128 disposed a distance apart and their focal length, so that the activities of the lens 126 into the parallel light to produce a parallel light emitted from the fixed lens 128 of the same beam diameter. 活动的透镜126安装在xyz平移台架或微操纵器上。 Activities lens 126 is mounted on the xyz translation stage or micromanipulator. 此透镜在所有三个方向上的运动近似地产生激光焦点在相同的三维上的对应的运动。 This lens movement in all three directions generates approximately corresponding laser focus on the same three-dimensional movement on. 对于焦点在轴方向(z方向)上的运动,透镜126被推向透镜128。 For the focus movement in the axial direction (z direction), the lens 126 is pushed toward the lens 128. 这使得激光束在离开第二透镜128时变得稍微发散。 This allows the laser beam becomes slightly divergent when leaving the second lens 128. 这将焦点从物镜推开并且较深入到样品中。 This will focus the lens and pushed deeply into the sample. 同样,当透镜126被从透镜128拖拉开时,离开望远镜到透镜128的左边的激光束变得有点会聚,将焦点引向物镜。 Similarly, when the lens 126 is hauled away from the lens 128, leaving the telescope to the left of the laser beam lens 128 becomes a little convergence, will focus towards the objective. 透镜126在垂直于光轴的xy平面中的运动在离开透镜128的光(其基本是束的旋转)中产生偏离。 Movement of the lens 126 in the xy plane perpendicular to the optical axis deviation occurs in the light leaving the lens (which is basically a rotation of the beam) of 128. 如果透镜128被成像到物镜瞳孔的背面,则此旋转发生在到物镜瞳孔的共轭平面中,导致激光斑的平移。 If lens 128 is imaged onto the back of the objective pupil, then this rotation occurs in the objective lens pupil conjugate plane, resulting in the translation of the laser spot. 透镜128通过其在物镜瞳孔后在2f距离处的位置实现此,其中f是透镜126和128的焦距。 Lens 128 at a position through which to achieve this at a distance 2f behind the objective pupil, where f is the focal length of the lens 126 and 128.

分色镜132反射合适的激光波长,通常〜1100nm或〜850nm。 Dichroic mirror 132 reflecting a suitable laser wavelength, usually ~1100nm or ~850nm. 分色镜132透射650nm以下的可见光。 The dichroic mirror 132 transmits visible light below 650nm. 这导引激光束朝向显微镜物镜142。 This guide laser beam toward the microscope objective 142. 因为可见光可以通过分色镜,可以使用标准显微镜部件经由观察路径106观察风景。 Because visible light can pass dichroic mirror, you can use a standard microscope parts through the viewing path 106 to observe the scenery. 作为附加的安全措施,在分色镜132和观察者之间提供红外阻挡滤光 As an additional security measure, between the dichroic mirror 132 and provide the viewer with an infrared blocking filter

器134。 134.

标准的显微镜物镜142完成聚焦激光束的主要量。 The standard microscope objective 142 to complete a major amount of the focused laser beam. 物镜典型地为高NA 物镜,具有在40X和100X之间的放大率,在1.25和1.40之间的NA,并且设计用于油浸或水浸。 Typically a high NA objective lens with 40X magnification 100X in between and, NA between 1.25 and 1.40, and is designed for oil or water immersion. 显微镜物镜包括后焦透镜144和前透镜148。 Including post-focus lens microscope objective 144 and the front lens 148. 物镜可以包含像差校正装置,为简单没有描写像差校正装置。 Aberration correcting means may comprise an objective lens, there is no description of a simple aberration correction means.

要囚禁的对象部署于样品载体152上。 To imprisoned objects deployed on the sample carrier 152.

在对象要绕激光束旋转的情况下,光学镊子系统IOO需要另外的装置, 诸如变形透镜和马达或等同物,以期望的旋转速度旋转变形透镜。 In the case of the object to be rotated around the laser beam, optical tweezers system IOO need another device, such as an anamorphic lens and a motor or equivalent to the desired rotational speed anamorphic lens. 变形透镜产生非对称的焦点。 Anamorphic lens produces an asymmetric focal point. 旋转该透镜也旋转焦点,并且因此旋转对象。 The rotation of the lens rotates focus, and thus rotate the object. 一个替代是使用专门的光栅,所谓的螺旋相轮廓(helical phase profile),其转换螺旋模式中的TEM。 An alternative is to use a special grating, a so-called phase contour spiral (helical phase profile), which converts the spiral pattern in the TEM. o激光束(针对激光束的波传播的基模)。 o a laser beam (laser beam for waves propagating fundamental mode). 然而,此方法的缺点是旋转速度不易改变。 However, a disadvantage of this method is not easy to change the rotational speed.

图2示出了根据本发明的一实施例的光学镊子系统。 Figure 2 shows an embodiment of an optical tweezers system according to the present invention. 此系统不同于图1 的光学镊子系统,因为没有使用望远镜布置来控制激光束的焦点。 This system differs from the view of an optical tweezers system 1, because no telescope is arranged to control the focus of the laser beam. 此功能现在由在此实施例中位于显微镜物镜142中的束操纵部件246承担。 This feature is now made in this embodiment, the microscope objective lens 142 is located in the beam manipulation member 246 to bear. 更具体地,束操纵部件位于显微镜物镜的后焦透镜144和前透镜148之间。 More particularly, beam manipulation member is located between the microscope objective back focal lens 144 and the front lens 148. 在不同的实施例中,束操纵部件可以放置在显微镜物镜142之前。 In various embodiments, the beam manipulation member may be placed before the microscope objective 142. 束操纵部件246可以是利用电润湿效应的变焦透镜。 Beam manipulation member 246 may be utilizing the electrowetting effect of the zoom lens. 在此情况下,其包含具有不同折射率的两种不溶合的流体。 In this case, which comprises two fluids having different refractive indices are not fused. 可以改变两种流体之间的弯月面,使得可以响应于给予束操纵部件的命令获得透镜的变化的光学行为。 The meniscus can be varied between the two fluids, so that in response to the command given change in the beam manipulation member to obtain the optical behavior of the lens. 在如图1中描写的已知的光学镊子系统中,望远镜部分需要大量的空间。 In Figure 1, the description of the known optical tweezers system, the telescope part requires a lot of space. 如上述,需要具有它们的已知的缺点的机械望远镜,以控制图1中所示的活动的透镜126。 As described above, you need to have their known disadvantages of mechanical telescope, in order to control the activities of the lens 1 126 shown in FIG.

图3示出了在电润湿透镜300的轴平面中的截面。 Figure 3 shows an axial plane wetting power lens 300 in cross-section. 电润湿透镜300示于闲置状态中。 Electrowetting lens 300 is shown in the idle state. 在描写的形式中,其具有基本圆柱的形式。 In the description of the form, which has a substantially cylindrical form. 电润湿透镜包括密封的容器,具有:容器基座302、容器盖304、及容器壁306。 Electrowetting lens comprises a sealed container, comprising: a base container 302, the container lid 304 and the container 306 walls. 容器优选地由透明材料制成。 Container is preferably made of a transparent material. 然而,容器壁不必是透明的。 However, the container wall does not have to be transparent.

电润湿透镜还包括基座电极312和壁电极316。 Electrowetting lens also includes a base electrode 312 and the wall electrode 316. 基座电极312作为具有外轮缘的环形成。 Base electrode 312 is formed as a ring having an outer rim. 其位于容器基座302和容器壁306之间的过渡处。 Which is located at the transition container base 302 and 306 between the container wall. 此外, 基座电极312通过容器基座302和容器壁306之间的合适的通道从容器的外部到内部延伸。 In addition, the base electrode 312 through the appropriate channel container base 302 and between the container wall 306 extending from the exterior to the interior of the container. 基座电极302的右边描绘连接端子,通过它,电压加于 Drawing on the right of the base electrode connection terminal 302, through which voltage is applied to

基座电极上。 The base electrode. 壁电极316围绕容器壁306,除邻近容器基座302的部分外。 Wall electrode 316 surrounds container wall 306, in addition to the base 302 of the container portion adjacent. 这里,壁电极316描绘为两个同心的圆柱体,它们由环在它们各自的较上边缘连接。 Here, the wall electrode 316 is depicted as two concentric cylinders, they are compared with their respective upper edges by a connecting ring. 虽然,例如能够放弃外部圆柱(如果甚至对快速改变的电压也能够在整个电极上获得满意的一致的电压分布)。 Although, for example, can give up the outer cylindrical (even if rapidly changing voltage can be obtained a satisfactory uniform voltage distribution over the entire electrode). 连接端描绘在壁电极316 的右侧,在用于基座电极312的连接端的附近。 Connecting terminal electrode 316 is depicted in the right side wall, in the vicinity of the connecting terminal for the base electrode 312.

绝缘体322位于由壁电极316的内部圆柱限定的开口内。 Insulator 322 is located within the walls of the interior cylindrical electrode 316 defines an opening. 此外,疏水涂层324在容器的内部在腔的顶部和侧面但是不在底部提供衬里。 Furthermore, the hydrophobic coating 324 on the interior of the container at the top and bottom sides of the chamber, but not to provide liner.

由容器、电极、绝缘体和疏水涂层形成的腔填充有两种不相溶的流体。 Cavity filled by the container, the electrodes, the insulator and the hydrophobic coating is formed of two immiscible fluids. 第一流体332是导电的并且可以是例如盐水。 The first fluid 332 is electrically conductive and may be, for example, saline. 第二流体是绝缘的并且可以是例如某种油。 The second fluid is insulating and may be for example some kind of oil. 基于水的第一流体典型地具有约1.33的折射率,而通过使用合适的油,第二流体的折射率能够选择为高达1.6。 Water-based first fluid typically has a refractive index of about 1.33, and by using a suitable oil, the refractive index of the second fluid can be selected to be as high as 1.6. 折射率差异越大,得到的电润湿透镜越有效。 The refractive index difference, the more effective the resulting electrowetting lens. 通过匹配两种流体的密度,透镜能够变得稳定, 预防撞击和振动。 By matching the density of the two fluids, the lens can become stable, preventing shock and vibration. 其还变得与它被使用的方向无关。 It also became independent of the direction it is used. 因为第一流体主要包含水,腔的内顶部和侧壁上的疏水涂层324通过排斥第一流体而对它进行作用。 Since the first fluid comprises a hydrophobic coating 324 water main, top and side walls of the inner cavity of the first fluid through the exclusion of the role it performed. 结果,第一流体往往最小化它与疏水涂层324的接触面积。 As a result, the first fluid tends to minimize its contact with the hydrophobic coating 324 area. 此行为导致两种流体之间弯曲的界面。 This behavior causes the curved interface between the two fluids. 该界面也称作弯月面并且用作球面透镜。 The interface is also known as the meniscus and serves as a spherical lens. 因为油334比水溶液332有较高折射率,所以电润湿透镜的光学效果可比得上发散透镜,这能够从顶部到底部通过透镜的发散光线看出。 Since the oil 334 has a higher refractive index than the solution 332, so electrowetting lens optical effect comparable to a diverging lens, which can be from the top in the end portion of the lens seen by divergent rays.

图4示出了如图3中描写的相同的电润湿透镜,这次,施加不同于零的电压到基座电极312和壁电极316的端子。 Figure 4 shows the same electrowetting lens depicted in Figure 3, this time, different from zero applied voltage to the terminal base electrode 312 and the wall electrode 316. 在应用此电压时,电荷在壁电极中积累,而在靠近固/液界面处的导电流体中感应出相反的电荷。 In the application of this voltage, the charge accumulated in the wall of the electrode, and in close proximity to the solid / liquid interface of the conductive fluid induced in the opposite charge. 与施加的电压相关的电荷量导致作用在两种流体之间的弯月面上的附加的力。 The amount of charge associated with the voltage applied between the two leads in the additional force fluid meniscus. 因为液体量保持相同,此附加的力导致两种流体之间的界面的曲率半径改变。 Because the amount of liquid remains the same, this additional force results curvature radius of the interface between the two fluids change. 因为现在以相对于第二流体334以凸面的方式对界面进行了整形,所以电润湿透镜的表现如同平面凸面透镜。 Because now with respect to the second fluid 334 in a convex way interface has been shaping, so electrowetting lens behaves like a plane convex lens. 会聚透镜是会聚透镜且其对通过电润湿透镜的光线的作用在图4中描绘。 Converging lens is a converging lens and its effect through the electrowetting lens of the light is depicted in Figure 4.

图5示出了与图3和4类似的电润湿透镜。 Figure 5 shows a similar electrical 4 3 and a wetting lenses. 差异是图5中示出的电润湿透镜500的电极部署不是完全合理地对称的。 The difference is shown in Fig. 5 electric wetting lens electrode 500 is not completely deployed reasonably symmetrical. 实际上,壁电极现在包括两个区别的电极516和517。 In fact, the difference between the wall electrode now includes two electrodes 516 and 517. 因此,不同的电压能够施加在电润湿透镜的两个相反的侧面上。 Thus, different voltages can be applied on the two opposite sides of the electrowetting lens. 这导致界面被拖拉向疏水涂324到在每个侧面上不同的 This causes the interface to be hauled to a hydrophobic coating 324 to different on each side

高度。 Height. 依次,这使得界面相对于垂直于电润湿透镜的光轴的平面倾斜。 In turn, this makes the interface with respect to the perpendicular to the optical axis of the electrowetting lens plane tilt. 只要弯月面是平的,电润湿透镜的行为就如同棱镜。 As long as the meniscus is flat, electrowetting lens behaves like a prism. 为达此目的,施加于电 To this end, power is applied to the

极515和517的平均电压应当在0伏和施加于图4中所示的电润湿透镜的电压之间某处。 The average voltage electrode 515 and 517 should be somewhere between the voltage shown in FIG. 4 in the wetting of the lens and at 0 volts is applied. 弯月面的倾斜能够与如图3中的发散行为、或如图4中的会聚行为组合。 Inclined meniscus can be combined with a divergent behavior in FIG. 3, or 4, as shown in the convergence behavior. 在图5中,示出了向左倾斜弯月面和以相对于第二流体334 以凸面方式整形它的组合。 In Figure 5, there is shown tilted to the left with respect to the meniscus and the second fluid 334 in a convex manner shaping its composition. 这导致电润湿透镜呈现位于透镜下并且稍微向左的焦点。 This leads to an electrowetting lens exhibits located slightly to the left under the lens and the focal point.

在图5中,示出了两个壁电极段516和517。 In Figure 5, it shows two wall electrode segments 516 and 517. 明显地,能够以较高的自由度选择任何数量的电极段,以在不同于光轴的方向上导引光通过电润湿透镜。 Obviously, a higher degree of freedom can select any number of electrode segments to the optical axis in a direction different from the light guide through the electrowetting lens. 对于更完整的描述,参照国际专利申请公开WO2004/051323。 For a more complete description, see International Patent Application Publication WO2004 / 051323.

图6示出了通过装备有电润湿透镜500的显微镜物镜142的轴平面中的截面。 Figure 6 shows a plane through the shaft equipped with an electrowetting lens 500. The microscope objective 142 in the cross section. 以已知的方式,显微镜物镜包括前透镜604、弯月面透镜606、以及例如后焦距透镜608 (也称作后焦透镜)。 In known manner, a microscope objective comprises a front lens 604, a meniscus lens 606, and for example, the back focus of the lens 608 (also called rear focal lens). 术语弯月面透镜不应当与电润湿透镜500的弯月面混淆。 The term meniscus lens should not electrowetting meniscus lens 500 confusion. 显微镜物镜还包括外壳602,用于固定透镜并提供保护以免受来自侧面的入射光及灰尘的影响。 Further comprising a microscope objective lens housing 602 for holding the lens and provides protection against impact from the side of incident light and dust. 显微镜物镜142应当理解为简化的描绘。 Microscope objective 142 should be understood as a simplified drawing. 可以提供附加的部件,诸如像差和色度校正装置。 It may provide additional components such as aberration and color correction means. 此外, 显微镜物镜142没有按比例绘制。 Furthermore, microscope objective 142 is not drawn to scale. 电润湿透镜500放置在弯月面透镜606 和后焦距透镜608之间。 Electrowetting lens 500 is placed between the meniscus lens 606 and the back focal length lens 608. 在此位置,电润湿透镜500能够以方便的方式履行聚焦和导引光学镊子系统的激光束。 In this position, the electrowetting lens 500 can be a convenient way to perform the focusing and guiding the laser beam of the optical tweezers system. 物镜的前透镜604提供光学镊子系统所需的聚焦焦度的主要部分。 The objective lens 604 is provided before the main part of the focusing power of the optical tweezers system needs. 通过改变电润湿透镜的焦距,能够改变组合的系统的焦距。 By changing the focal length of the electrowetting lens, the focal length capable of changing the composition of the system. 这导致焦点上下移动。 This causes the focus to move up and down.

应当注意,随着电润湿透镜改变其焦距和偏转方向,观察者的视野也发生改变。 It should be noted, as the electrowetting lens changes its focal distance and deflection direction, the observer's visual field is also changed. 熟悉光学镊子系统领域状态的用户可能需要一些时间来熟悉此操作方式。 Familiar with the state of the art optical tweezers system users may take some time to become familiar with this operation. 然而,应当理解,焦点总在观察者视野的中心。 However, it should be understood that the focus always at the center of the viewer's field of vision. 作为对观察者的方向,从图1到2的样品载体152可以示出格栅和对应的标记。 As the direction of the viewer, sample carrier 152 from Figure 1-2 can be shown and the corresponding grid mark.

在可选例中,电润湿透镜能够位于激光束路径104和垂直显微镜光路106 (图2)分开的点。 In an alternative embodiment, the electrowetting lens can be positioned perpendicular to the laser beam path 104 and microscope light path 106 (FIG. 2) separate points. 电润湿透镜然后能够位于激光束路径104中。 Electrowetting lens can then be located in the laser beam path 104.

此外,提供两个或更多个电润湿透镜也是可能的。 In addition, to provide two or more electrowetting lens also possible. 于是一个电润湿透镜能够用于调整光学镊子系统的焦距,而一个或多个其它电润湿透镜提供束偏转。 Thus an electrowetting lens can be used to adjust the focal length of the optical tweezers system, while one or more other electrowetting lenses provide the beam deflection. 图7是稍微从下面的透视图中的显微镜物镜142的前透镜604的示意性视图,示例光学镊子系统的一些变量。 Figure 7 is a perspective view slightly from below in the microscope objective lens 142 is a schematic front view 604, some variables exemplary optical tweezers system. 前透镜604由激光束762在基本从顶部到底部的方向横过。 The front lens 604 in the base 762 by a laser beam from a direction transverse to the top in the end portion. 图7示出了特殊情况,其中,激光束位于前透镜的较低表面的平面中的中心。 Figure 7 shows a special case, in which the lower surface of the planar laser beam is located in the center of the front lens. 通常,依赖于F制光圈(F-stop)的设置, 不必相对于提到的表面将激光束定为中心。 Typically, depending on the F-stops (F-stop) is provided, the surface need not be mentioned with respect to the laser beam as the center. 图7中,在进入前透镜604之前,激光束762由例如电润湿透镜偏转。 7, before entering the front lens 604, laser beam 762 deflected by the electrowetting lens, for example. 因此,激光束762不在平行于前透镜的光轴的方向上撞击前透镜604的较上半球。 Therefore, the impact on the hemisphere than the front lens 604 in the direction of the laser beam 762 is not parallel to the front of the lens of the optical axis. 定义坐标系,其原点位于前透镜604的较低平面表面的中心。 The definition of the coordinate system with the origin in the center of the lower planar surface of the front lens 604. 坐标系的z轴沿前透镜604的光轴在激光束的传播方向上延伸,即图7中向下。 Z-axis of the coordinate system along the optical axis of the front lens 604 in the extending direction of propagation of the laser beam, i.e., downward in FIG. 7. 坐标系的xy平面由前透镜604的所述较低平面表面定义。 Xy plane coordinate system is defined by the front lens 604 of the lower planar surface. 仅示出了x轴。 It shows only the x-axis. 在使用光学镊子系统之前, 校准显微镜物镜围绕其光轴的角度位置是有利的,以便能够以规定的方式控制期望的束偏转。 Before using optical tweezers system, the calibration of the microscope objective around its optical axis angular position it is advantageous to be able to control in a desired manner predetermined beam deflection.

激光束762呈现激光束轴766。 The laser beam of the laser beam axis 766 762 exhibits. 前透镜的光轴和激光束轴之间的角度由0 (大写字母THETA)指定。 And the angle of the optical axis of the laser beam axis between the front lens is specified by 0 (uppercase THETA). 激光束762聚焦到焦点764。 Focusing the laser beam 762 to focus 764. 焦点的z坐标由得到的光学镊子系统的焦距&给出。 Z coordinates of the focus obtained by the focal length of the optical tweezers system & given. 如果入射光的方向变化,则透镜的焦点在垂直于光轴的平面中移置。 If the direction of the incident light changes, the focus of the lens in a plane perpendicular to the optical axis is displaced.

图8示出了在图7的方向VIII上从前透镜604以上的视图。 Figure 8 shows the direction VIII of Figure 7 a view from the front of the lens 604 or more. 示出了坐标系的x轴和y轴。 It shows the x-axis and y-axis coordinate system. 内圆描绘激光束762在前透镜604的较低平面表面处的激光束762的外形。 762 depicts the inner circle laser beam laser at the lower planar surface of the lens 604 of the first beam 762 appearance. 激光束轴766示出为在到x轴的角度O (大写字母PHI)以下。 The laser beam axis 766 is shown as the x-axis at an angle O (uppercase PHI) or less.

计算上确定焦点的x坐标和y坐标的一种方式是计算激光束轴766与焦平面的焦点。 Determine the focus of the calculated x-coordinate and y-coordinate is a way to focus the laser beam axis 766 and calculate the focal plane. 因为z坐标已知为得到的焦距&,所以仅需要确定x坐标和y坐标。 Because the z coordinate of the focal length is known as & obtained, it is only necessary to determine the x and y coordinates. 在通常环境下,预选择x、 y、和z坐标并且由光学镊子系统导引焦点到此位置。 Under normal environment, preselected x, y, and z-coordinates and the focus by the optical tweezers system guide to this position. 因此,必须执行相反的计算,以得到对f。 Therefore, you must do the reverse calculation, in order to obtain for f. 0> (PHI)和0 (THETA)的对应值。 0> (PHI) and 0 (THETA) corresponding value. 于是可以从这些值计算合适的电极信号。 So you can calculate an appropriate electrode signals from these values. 使用一个或数个查找表格也是一种选择。 Use one or more lookup tables are also an option.

图9是从顶部观看的电润湿透镜的示意性描绘。 Figure 9 is a view from the top of the electrowetting lens depicted schematically. 为简明,仅示出了疏水涂层324和六个电极316a-316f。 For simplicity, it shows only a hydrophobic coating 324 and six electrodes 316a-316f. 参考数字902表示例如第一和第二流体332、 334之间的弯月面的轮廓线。 Reference numeral 902 represents, for example the first and second fluid meniscus contour line 332, 334 between. 定义当前弯月面形状的最上和最下z位置之间的中间z位置的可以是例如轮廓线。 Defining the current shape of the meniscus and lowermost intermediate position between z z position may be, for example contour. 如能够看到的,轮廓线902具有椭圆形状。 As can be seen, the contour line 902 has an elliptical shape. 这意指弯月面沿椭圆的两个主轴呈现不同的曲率半径。 This means that the meniscus presents different radii of curvature along two axis of the ellipse. 其中, 椭圆是细长的,曲率半径相对地高,并且反之亦然。 Wherein, the ellipse is elongated, the radius of curvature is relatively high, and vice versa. 通过以特定模式驱动 By specific driving mode

电极316a-316f,随时间旋转椭圆是可能的。 Electrodes 316a-316f, oval rotation over time is possible. 图9描绘当前为平面凸面的透镜相对于第二较高折射率流体334的时刻,在该时刻,与其它电极316a、 316b、 316d、及316e相比,电极316c和316f被以较小电压驱动。 Figure 9 depicts the timing of a convex surface of the lens with respect to the plane of the second current higher refractive index fluid 334, at this time, compared with the other electrodes 316a, 316b, 316d, and 316e, 316c and 316f electrodes are driven with a small voltage . 实际上, 沿弯月面产生界面波。 In fact, producing waves along the interface meniscus. 作为其结果,焦点变得不对称并且随时间旋转。 As a result, the focus becomes asymmetric and rotates with time. 考虑它的另一途径是将电润湿透镜当作变形透镜。 Another approach is to consider it the electrowetting lens as an anamorphic lens. 为了产生能够旋转由光学镊子系统抓住的粒子的非对称,利用诸如由电润湿透镜产生的慧差的像差效果是足够的。 In order to be able to generate rotational asymmetrical particles caught by the optical tweezers system, the use of effects such as coma aberration by generating the electrowetting lens is sufficient.

图10描绘针对图9中的六个电极316a-316f的信号发展。 Figure 10 depicts the signal for the development of FIG. 9 electrodes 316a-316f of the six. 如果期望弯月面的对称的配置,则成对分组电压Va至Vf。 If desired symmetrical configuration of the meniscus, the voltage Va to the pair of packet Vf. 属于相同对的两个电压,例如Va和Vd,具有针对弯月面的对称配置的相同值。 Belonging to the same pair of two voltages, such as Va and Vd, it has the same values for the meniscus symmetrical configuration. 在图10中,电压描绘为具有周期T的正弦函数。 In Figure 10, the voltage is depicted as having a period T of the sine function. 这不是必须的,从而电压可以遵从其它函数。 This is not necessary, so that the voltage can comply with other functions. 电压具有平均值Vm。 Voltage has an average value Vm. 此平均值规定期望的直流电压成分,其是提供某一曲率并且依次某一焦距所需要的。 This predetermined desired average DC voltage component, which is to provide a certain curvature and focal length of the desired sequence. 如上述,诸如慧差的像差已经可以足够提供所需的非对称。 As described above, such as coma aberration already sufficient to provide the desired asymmetrical. 因此,弱的交变电压成分也已经可以提供期望的效果。 Thus, a weak alternating voltage component may also have to provide the desired effect.

虽然于此描述的系统基于电润湿透镜,但是相同的原理也适用于基于磁润湿的系统,因此适用于包含两种流体的系统,其中一种为铁磁流体, 并且其中弯月面的形状由磁场改变。 Although the system is described herein based on electrowetting lens, but the same principle applies to systems based on magneto wetting, it is applied to a system comprising two fluids, one of which is a ferrofluid, and wherein the meniscus change the shape of the magnetic field. 在欧洲专利申请EP 04102437号中能够找到详细的讨论。 In European Patent Application EP No. 04102437 detailed discussion can be found.

International ClassificationG02B21/32, G02B26/02, G21K1/00, G02B3/14
Cooperative ClassificationG02B26/005, G02B3/14, G02B21/32
European ClassificationG02B26/00L, G02B26/00L1, G02B3/14, G02B21/32
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